The experiential metafunction: Clause as representation
Ideational (construes human experience) – Transitivity
Interpersonal (enacts human relationships) – Mood
Textual (creates discourse) – Theme/Rheme
Logical (links between components rather than unit–whole) Ideational function
Experiential (modelling a domain of "knowledge" – construing organic ‘wholes’) Processes, participants, circumstances
|[pic] |BABY | | |PRAM | | |FATHER | | |PUSH | | |WALK | | |HAIR | | |AWAKE |
– setting up taxonomies of events, things and qualities
|semantic (role) |process |participant(s) |circumstance | |lexicogrammatical |verbal group |nominal group |adverbial group / prepositional phrase | |(realization) | |substantival/adjectival | |
Michael looked at her for a moment. Then he began to laugh. 'I'm so sorry,' said Michael, 'but it did sound comic, the way you said it! Cheer up, there's no tragedy. I have to go to the village this evening, and I'll fetch your suitcase then. It'll be quite safe at the White Lion. Did you have any lunch by the way? We were wondering about you. Thompson, p 79:
Three questions that can be asked about any process and the clause of which it forms a nucleus: 1. What kind of process is it?
2. How many participants can/must be involved in the process? 3. What roles can/must those participants play?
| |material (‘doing’, ‘causing') | | |behavioural (‘acting’) | |major clause |mental (‘thinking’, ‘sensing’, 'evaluating') | |(process) types |verbal (‘saying’) | | |relational (‘being’, ‘having’) | | |existential (‘existing’, ‘appearing’) |
Associated participants: Actor & Goal
Actor. the participant always inherent in a material clause. The Actor can be animate (‘action’) or inanimate (‘event’). The process it participates in may or may not extend to affect another participant, the Goal. Actor Process Goal
They were making supper.
Actor Process Circumstance
The car crashed into a tree
Goal Process Circumstance
Rome was not built in a day.
Actor Process Goal Circumstance Ambulance crews, firefighters and police helped to rescue passengers from the water. Goal Process Actor
The passengers were rescued by ambulance crews, firefighters and police Mental processes
Associated participants: Senser & Phenomenon
Phenomenon. Participant role in the transitivity structure of a mental clause: the phenomenon sensed by the Senser. (Senser in bold; Phenomenon in italics.) She saw them. She saw them leaving the house.
These people don’t understand functional grammar.
She recognized the dilemma she and every teenager around her found themselves in. One professor felt we should get our feet dirty.
Sarah fears nothing. Nothing frightens her.
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