mental retardation

Topics: Mental retardation, Genetic disorder Pages: 5 (1195 words) Published: January 22, 2014


Mental Retardation
February 14, 2013

Mental Retardation

I. Set of Class
A) Intelligence Quotient below 70
B) All class and Intelligence quotient
II. Diagnosis
A. Three criterion’s met
1.Iintellegence quotient below 70
2. Adaptive Behaviors
a. Communications
b. Self Help
c. Functional Academic Skills
d. Interpersonal Skills
III. Genetic Screening
A. Prenatal Testing
1. Increase risk of a fetus
B. Diagnostic testing
1. Suspicion based on physical signs
C. Newborn Screening
1. Identify genetic disorders
IV. Common causes
A. Genetic condition
1. Improper development of fetus
B. Difficulty during pregnancy
1. Lack of oxygen
C. Toxins and Disease
1. Lead
2. Measles
3. Meningitis

V. Class
A. Mild Mental Retardation
1. Percentage of people diagnosed with Mild M.R.
2. Social communication skills
3. Adapting adolescents
4. Independent adult achievements
B. Moderate Mental Retardation
1. Percentage of people diagnosed with Moderate M.R.
2. Social Communication skills
3. Adapting adolescents
4. Adult achievements
C. Severe Mental Retardation
1. Percentage of people diagnosed with Severe M.R.
2. Familiarizing in pre-academics
3. Adapting environment
D. Profound Mental Retardation
1. Percentage of people diagnosed with Profound M.R.
2. Impairment and sensorimotor functioning
3. Neurological condition
4. Structured environment
VI. Clinical Subtypes
A. Intellectual Deficit

70. 55. 40. 25. These are the four degrees of mental retardation. These numbers represent the severity of mental retardation in an individual. Each degree is categorized under Mild, Moderate, Severe and Profound. Severity Unspecified is also a term used when there is a strong presumption of Mental Retardation but the standards test cannot conclude the severity therefore the person’s intelligence is not sustained by the standard test.

In diagnosing mental retardation, there must be three criterion’s met a IQ below 70 and significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behaviors. In example, communication, self help, interpersonal skills, self-directions, resources, functional academic skills, work, home living, health and safety (American Psychiatric Association.2000). A more common symptom for an individual with mental retardation is adaptive functioning. A persons background is also taken into consideration during the test analysis social cultural background, motivation and education. Genetic screening takes place before the child is born. There are a few common tests that can help in diagnosing. Prenatal testing is offered to detect any changes in the fetus. This testing is offered if there is a increase risk’s that the fetus will have a chromosomal or genetic disorder. However, this cannot detect all birth disorders. Diagnostic testing is put into use when there is suspicion of a particular condition based on physical signs and symptoms. Newborn screening is used right after birth to identify any genetic disorders (Undefined.2013). Among children, the cause is usually unknown for one-third to one-half of cases (Daily, Ardringer, and Holmes. 2000). Mental Retardation is diagnosed before eighteen years of age. A few common causes of Mental Retardation are genetic conditions, problems during pregnancy, and problems at birth, exposure to toxins or diseases, and malnutrition. Genetic conditions can occur when genes are combined or the parents inherit abnormal genes. A fetus not developing properly in the womb can also lead to Mental Retardation. Problems at birth can lead to brain damage when a child is unable to get enough oxygen. Exposure to toxins and diseases such as lead, mercury or contracting whooping cough, measles or meningitis can cause mental disability. Malnutrition has also been a cause of reduced intelligence. Mild Mental Retardation used to be referred to as an educational...

Cited: American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Daily DK, Ardinger HH, Holmes GE. (February 2000). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation. In aafp.org. Retrieved January 29, 2013, from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0215/p1059.html.
Lawyer, Liz. (November 26, 2010). Rosa 's Law to Remove Stigmatized Language from Law Books. In the Ithaca Journal. Retrieved January 29, 2013, from http://theithacajournal.com/article/old-term-to-developemental-disability.
Undefined. (January 18, 2003). What are the types of genetic tests?. In Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved January 29, 2013, from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=mentalretardation.
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