Mendelian Genetics

Powerful Essays
Mendelian Genetics
Introduction
In 1865 an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, presented the results of painstaking experiments on the inheritance of the garden pea. Those results were heard, but not understood, by Mendel's audience. In 1866, Mendel published his results in an obscure German journal. The result of this was that Mendel's work was ignored and forgotten. Mendel died in 1884 without knowing the pivotal role his work would play in founding the modern discipline of genetics.

By 1899, some geneticists were beginning to realize the necessity of mathematically analyzing inheritance in order to understand how evolution might work (Bateson, 1899). They did not realize that Mendel had already solved this problem. Then, in 1900, three leading scientists of the day, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erik von Tschermak, simultaneously rediscovered Mendel's paper and realized how important it was. With the rediscovery of Mendel’s principles, genetics as a scientific discipline exploded into activity. Within two years, the first human study of inheritance (Garrod, 1902), describing the Mendelian inheritance of alkaptonuria, was published. This paper, too, was far ahead of its time, the importance of which would only be recognized as the one gene-one polypeptide principle was developed in the latter part of this century.

Now, more than a century later, Mendel's work seems elementary to modern-day geneticists, but its importance cannot be overstated. The principles generated by Mendel's pioneering experimentation are the foundation for genetic counseling so important today to families with health disorders having a genetic basis. It's also the framework for the modern research that is making in roads in treating diseases previously believed to be incurable. In this era of genetic engineering - the incorporation of foreign DNA into chromosomes of unrelated species - it is easy to lose sight of the basics of the process that makes it all possible.

Recent advances

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    Mendel used mathematics and experimentation to derive major principles that have helped us understand inheritance. His ideas were totally different than the explanation for passage of characteristics from parents to offspring that was common to his time. List and describe his principles and describe how each contributes to genetic variability. How might biology have be different if his discoveries had not been lost for decades? Be prepared to…

    • 644 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    chapter 10 bio. outline

    • 611 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Gregor Mendel, working in the mid 1800s, performed inheritance experiments using garden peas in an effort to discover how variation arose in offspring.…

    • 611 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    They thought Mendel’s hereditary determinants were on a locus. They found out that the physical separation of alleles during anaphase I of meiosis accounts for Mendel’s principle of segregation. If the alleles for different genes are located on different chromosomes, they assort independently from one another in meiosis I. This confirmed the principle of independent assortment. Later on, the two scientists came up with the chromosome theory of inheritance, which states that independent assortment happens in metaphase and anaphase of meiosis I. To test the theory of inheritance, scientist Thomas Hunt Morgan used the fruit fly. At one point, Morgan noticed that a male fruit fly had white eyes rather than the wild type red eyes. He concluded that the white eyes resulted from a mutation. He mated a red-eyed female with a mutant white-eyed male and the results showed that all of the F_1 females had red eyes, but the F_1 males had white eyes. This was very peculiar because Mendel already proved that traits are not sex based. Morgan realized that the X chromosome in males and females explained his results. He determined that eye color is carried on the X chromosome and not on the Y chromosome. This is described as sex-linked inheritance. According to the X-linkage hypothesis, a female has two copies of the eye color gene because they have the two X chromosomes, whereas the male fruit flies have the one X chromosome that codes for eye color. The reciprocal cross of pea plants happened on non-sex chromosomes called autosomes. Genes on non-sex chromosomes show autosomal inheritance. Biologists now know that Boveri’s and Sutton's chromosome theory of inheritance was…

    • 600 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    * Choose equipment or resources to perform a first-hand investigation to construct a model of DNA…

    • 680 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Eugenics, meaning “well born” is a term coined and a field created by Francis Galton, a British scientist. In 1869, Galton constructed pedigrees of leading English families using biographical information from obituaries and other sources and concluded that superior intelligence and abilities were inherited with an efficiency of 20%. From this research Galton theorized that if the fittest members of society were to have more children then humanity could be improved. In the early 1900s the eugenics movement gained much attention in the United States and lead to the rediscovery of Mendel’s experiment conducted in 1865, which explored the inheritance patterns of certain characteristics in pea plants. Since scientist, specifically animal breeders have been using disassortative mating for centuries in order to successfully improve their livestock; eugenics researchers believed they could carefully control human mating. Eugenics researchers believed that if mating could be controlled conditions like mental retardation and physical disabilities could be…

    • 585 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Bibliography: Campbell, N. A.-7. (2005). Biology. In Evolution of Genetics (p. 314). San Francisco: Pearson Education,Inc.…

    • 1572 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Genotype

    • 524 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Write a one-page report about what a genotype is, what a phenotype is and how they can interact.…

    • 524 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Evolution Of Eugenics

    • 1394 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Beginning in the 1980s the history and concept of eugenics were widely discussed as knowledge about genetics advanced significantly. Endeavors such as the Human Genome Project made the effective modification of the human species seem possible again (as did Darwin's initial theory of evolution in the 1860s, along with the rediscovery of Mendel's laws in the early 20th century). The difference at the beginning of the 21st century was the guarded attitude towards eugenics, which had become a watchword to be feared rather than embraced.…

    • 1394 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Through studying the natural sciences in high school, my interest in science has deeply increased; recently I was under pressure to choose a course of study at the undergraduate level, but I knew I wanted to do something in the scientific field, particularly along the lines of biology and chemistry. While researching various courses, I came across genetics, which was of great interest to me, finding out that the course included aspects such as cell mutation, the studying of chromosomes, and the behavior of micro-organisms. These topics genuinely sparked my interest in the field.…

    • 428 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    MENDELIAN GENETICS DEXTER GICARO BALBOA UNO-R Coverage of this Lecture • Mendelian Genetics • Extension of Mendel’s Laws • Problem Sets Mendelian Genetics • Also known as Transmission Genetics • Explores how the genetic material is inherited from generation to generation Mendelian Genetics  The first significant insights into the mechanisms involved in inheritance occurred in 1866 with the works of Gregor Johann Mendel  His publication lay the foundation for the formal discipline of…

    • 1494 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Structure of Dna

    • 891 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This paper will first describe the structure of DNA; second discuss how the structure of DNA allows it to serve as the basis for inheritance, third examine how meiosis allows DNA to be divided into gametes and finally, describe how this relates to Gregor Mendel’s patterns of inheritance.…

    • 891 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Theodore Roosevelt Eugenics

    • 14350 Words
    • 58 Pages

    The founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel, showed that parents passed genes to offspring. Genes code for traits. For example, Mendel demonstrated that a single gene codes for the color green in peas. A single gene also codes for the color yellow in peas. The geneticists who followed Mendel had no difficulty extrapolating his findings to the rest of life. Of particular interest was the role of heredity in humans. In a casual way, people had long appreciated the importance of heredity, noting for example that a child looked strikingly like his or her mother. Geneticists sought to formalize observations of this kind, tracing, for example, the transmission of the gene for brown eyes through several generations of a family. In the course of this work it was natural for geneticists to wonder whether intelligence and traits of character were inherited with the lawlike regularity that Mendel had observed with simple traits in…

    • 14350 Words
    • 58 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    Fly Lab Report

    • 2371 Words
    • 10 Pages

    Famers and herders have been selectively breeding their plans and animals to produce more useful hybrids for thousands of years. It was somewhat of a hit or miss process since the actual mechanisms governing inheritance were unknown. Knowledge of these genetic mechanisms finally came as a result of careful laboratory breeding experiments carried out over the last century and a half. A contributing geneticist named Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), discovered through his research the basic underlying principles of heredity that also applied to humans and other animals. Mendel discovered that certain traits show up in offspring without any blending of parent traits. This observation that these parental traits do not show up in offspring plants with intermediate forms was critically important because the leading theory in biology at the time was that inherited traits blend from generation to generation.…

    • 2371 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    3. Carlson, Elof Axel. Mendel 's Legacy: The Origin of Classical Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2004. Print…

    • 810 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Fruit Fly Genetics

    • 1534 Words
    • 7 Pages

    McKusick, Victor A. Mendelian Inheritance in Man: Catalogs of Autosomal Dominant, Autosomal Recessive, and X-linked Phenotypes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1983. Print.…

    • 1534 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays