Meiosis and Mitosis
Meiosis vs. Mitosis:
Meiosis requires two nuclear divisions, but mitosis requires only one nuclear division. Meiosis producers four daughter nuclei, and there are four daughter cells following cytokinesis; mitosis followed by cytokinesis results in two daughter cells. Following meiosis, the four daughter cells are haploid and have half the chromosome number as the parent cell. Following mitosis, the daughter cells have the same chromosome number as the parent cell. Following meiosis, the daughter cells are genetically dissimilar to each other and to the parent cell. Following mitosis, the daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell. Meiosis I vs. Mitosis:
During meiosis I, tetrads form, and crossing-over occurs during prophase I. This event does not occur during mitosis. During metaphase I of meiosis, tetrads align at the spindle equator. The paired chromosomes have a total of four chromatids each. During metaphase in mitosis, dyads align at the spindle equator. During the anaphase I of meiosis, the homologous chromosomes of each tetrad separate, and dyads move to opposite poles. During anaphase of mitosis, sister chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes that move to opposite poles. Meiosis II vs. Mitosis:
The events of meiosis II are identical to those of mitosis except that in meiosis II, the cells have the haploid number of chromosomes. Meiosis occurs only at certain times in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms. The function of meiosis is to provide gamete variation and to keep the chromosome number constant throughout generations. Mitosis is more common because it occurs in all tissues during embryonic development and also during growth and repair. The function of mitosis is to keep the chromosome number constant in all cells of the body so that every cell has the same genetic material.
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