food safety hazards when preparing, serving, storing and cleaning away food and drinks are of three types, namely, biological and chemical hazards.
this is important because it prevents food poisoning for the individual for e.g. if i don't take all the necessary precautions when preparing food or drink, the service user may get food poisoning which could end with the service user going into hospital. food poisoning is caused when contaminated food is eaten, it can be extremely unpleasant, and in worst case scenarios it can be fatal, particularly in high-risk group clients. the most common cause of illness from food is bacterial contamination.
personal protective clothing must be used when handling food and drink because dust and bacteria from our clothes can contaminate the service users food and drink. for e.g. we go out in break and have a coffee in a coffee shop, when someone at the next table is sneezing , after going in the service users home we have to use protective clothing because bacteria from our own clothes may contaminate the food and drink we prepare.
surfaces, utensils and equipment must be clean before beginning a new task because bacteria from the left over pieces of food will contaminate the freshly cut/handled food, also chopping boards used for chopping vegetables must be washed before chopping meat if separate boards are not available in a service users home.
some of the cooked food products gets extremely quickly contaminated, as food waste promptly and safely. meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, cooked pasta and rice are perfect for bacteria to grow. that's why we must dispose or clear meals leftovers immediately. for e.g. if the service user left some rice or meat in the pan, we must cover it immediately after the meal and store it in the fridge but only for a few hours (e.g. lunch till supper, but not till next days lunch) if that leftover is not consumed at supper, we must dispose it in the bin for food waste. also we must wash up the pans, plates, cutlery etc after clearing the food to not leave time for bacteria to grow and develop.
when storing food we must follow some guidelines to ensure its safety, for e.g. to keep apart raw and cooked food, keep apart dairy product, meat products, eggs and vegetables because this is the way of preventing cross contamination.
hands should be washed quite regularly when handling food, they should be washed before preparing food, in-between dealing with raw and cooked foods also if you were to come in contact with a service user you should then wash your hands.
step 1 - wet hands thoroughly under warm running water and squirt liquid soap onto the palm of one hand. step 2 - rub your hands together to make lather
step 3 - rub the palm of one hand along the back of the other and along the fingers. then repeat with the other hand. step 4 - rub in between each of your fingers on both hands and round your thumbs. pay particular attention to your nails. you many need to use a nail brush. step 5 - rinse off the soap with clean water.
step 6 - dry hands on thoroughly on a disposable towel.
every person working in a food handling area must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and wear suitable clean and where appropriate protective clothing. clothing is a common source of contamination of food and may arise form: - foreign bodies e.g. buttons, fibers and debris
- pathogenic (harmful) micro-organisms via cross-contamination from dirty clothing. clothing must be clean and should be changed regularly to maintain hygienic standards and protect food from the risk of contamination where open high risk foods are being prepared or handled, protective clothing must be worn.
surfaces, utensils and equipment must be clean before beginning a new task: - removing matter on which bacteria grows
- reducing the risk of foreign matter in food
- preventing cross contamination e.g. direct, indirect
practices to control hazards when preparing and serving food and drink using seperate boards and utensils for different types of food e.g. raw meats and vegetables, using colour-coded chopping boards, making sure that food is thoroughly cooked according to guidelines e.g. not reheating more than once, following microwave instructions, ensuring frozen meat and products are thawed before cooking. cooking or reheating immediately before serving, washing ready-to-eat product, serving foods e.g. keeping hot or chilled food at correct temperature, nott topping up sauces, excluding staff with food poisoning symptoms.
prepare and serve food and drink in ways that minimise risks to own safety and that of others: - other e.g. children and adults who eat the food
- staff preparing food
- following good food handling and serving practices
- maintaining personal hygiene
- keeping any cuts or lesions completely covered
- wearing protective clothing
- minimising food handling e.g. using log handled servers
- importance of cleaning as you work
- replacing covers over food in preparation areas and serving areas - keeping preparation and serving areas clean and tidy
- check that individuals have finished eating before removing utensils and crockery - you encourage individuals to wash their hands and clean themselves at the end of the meal. - remove or assist individuals to remove used utensils and crockery - follow organisations policies and practice to dispose of stale or unusable left-over food - you clean work surfaces after use with appropriate cleaning materials - clean and store cooking utensils and equipment correctly or return them for cleaning - wash your hands and ensure your own cleanliness and hygiene after cleaning utensils, crockery and equipment
- following recommended time limits for food at room temperature - not leaving food and drink to accumulate in food areas
- not leaving food waste near foods or preparation areas
- replacing bin lids correctly
- keeping bins away from food areas
- hand washing after handling waste foods
- regular emptying and cleaning food waste bins
- keeping external refuse areas clean
- using seperate sinks for cleaning and food preparation
- thorough cleaning and disinfecting
- disposing of cleaning cloths or disinfecting
- disinfecting cleaning materials
- all utensils to be stored seperately on a rack
- place them upside down
- once dry put it in clean, dry storage shelves
- high risk food e.g. ready to eat, storing immediately after delivery - checking packaging
- regular cleaning of food storage areas and refrigerators
- separating ready to eat and raw foods
- stock rotation
- correct temperatures e.g. store rooms , refrigerators, freezers - suitable packaging and pest proof containers
- not storing foods in opened cans
- cleaning spills in storage areas immediately
- using covered containers
- keeping raw food separate from high risk foods e.g. raw food at the bottom of the fridge - storing perishable foods in dry conditions
- using clear labeling
- checking use-by dates
- government agencies e.g. food standards agency
- policies and procedures in own setting
- food packaging
- own job description
- line manager
- food hygiene qualifications