The College Board
Advanced Placement Examination
UNITED STATES HISTORY
(Suggested writing time-45
Percent of Section I1 score-45
Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-H g your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by &
essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period.
1. Analyze the changes that occurred during the 1960's in the goals, strategies, and support of the movement for African American civil rights.
Use the documents and your knowledge of the history of the 1960's to construct your response
Source: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) statement of purpose, April 1960 We affirm the philosophical or religious ideal of nonviolence as the foundation of our purpose, the presupposition of our faith, and the manner of our action. Nonviolence as it grows from Judaic-Christian traditions seeks a social order of justice permeated by love. Integration of human endeavor represents the crucial first step towards such a society.
Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear; love transforms hate. Acceptance dissipates prejudice; hope ends despair. Peace dominates war; faith reconciles doubt. Mutual regard cancels enmity. Justice for all overthrows injustice. The redemptive community supersedes systems of gross social immorality.
Copyright O 1995 by College Entrance Examination Board
and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.
Source: Martin Luther King, Jr., letter from the Birmingham jail, 1963
My Dear Fellow Clergymen:
I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.
* * *
Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a non-violent directaction program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here.
But more basically, I am in Birnlingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and canied their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco-Roman world, so I am compelled to cany the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid.
Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial "outside agitator" idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds.
Reprinted by arrangement with The Heirs to the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., c/o Joan Daves Agency as agent for the proprietor.
Source: President John F. Kennedy in a radio and television report to the American people June 11, 1963 We are confronted primarily with a moral issue. It is as old as the scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution.
The heart of the question is whether all Americans are to be afforded equal...
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