Mdma (Ecstasy)

Topics: Serotonin, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine / Pages: 7 (1698 words) / Published: Dec 3rd, 2012
MDMA (Ecstasy)

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug that is chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA produces feelings of increased energy, euphoria, emotional warmth, and distortions in time, perception, and tactile experiences. The origin of the drug MDMA was patented in 1913 (patent #274.350) by the German chemical company Merck supposedly to be sold as a diet pill (the patent does not mention any intended use), the company decided against marketing the drug and had nothing more to do with it. The US army experimented with MDMA in 1953, possibly as truth serum. They have not revealed their reasons.

MDMA is taken orally, usually as a capsule or tablet. Ecstasy is nearly always swallowed as a tablet or capsule. However, ecstasy is occasionally snorted, smoked or injected. It was initially popular among Caucasian adolescents and young adults in the nightclub scene or at weekend-long dance parties known as raves. More recently, the profile of the typical MDMA user has changed, with the drug now affecting a broader range of ethnic groups. MDMA is also popular among urban gay males—some report using MDMA as part of a multiple-drug experience that includes marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, ketamine, sildenafil (Viagra), and other legal and illegal substances. MDMA has the full chemical name of '3,4 Methylene-dioxy-N-methyl amphetamine ' or 'Methylenedioxymethamphetamine '. The 3,4 indicates the way in which the components of the molecule are joined together, as it is possible to produce an isomer, which has all the same components but is joined differently. Although it is derived from organic material, MDMA itself does not occur in nature, and must be created in a complex laboratory process. There are various popular street names for MDMA such as Ecstasy, E, Adam, X and Empathy.

Ecstasy is small, round and has a chalky texture. They come in all colors and shapes and some



References: 1- Ricaurte GA and McCann UD. Experimental studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) and its potential to damage brain serotonin neurons. Neurotox Res 3(1):85–99, 2001. 2- Stone AL, Storr CL, and Anthony JC. Evidence for a hallucinogen dependence syndrome developing soon after onset of hallucinogen use during adolescence. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 15:116–130, 2006. 3- Cottler LB, Womack SB, Compton WM, Ben-Abdallah A. Ecstasy abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults: Applicability and reliability of DSM-IV criteria. Human Psychopharmacol 16:599–606, 2001. 4- Leung KS, Cottler LB. Ecstasy and other club drugs: A review of recent epidemiological studies. Curr Opin Psychiatry 21:234–241, 2008. 5- Kraner JC, McCoy DJ, Evans MA, Evans LE, Sweeney BJ. Fatalities caused by the MDMA-related drug paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA). J Anal Toxicol 25(7):645–648, 2001.

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