materialism

Topics: Materialism, Matter, Philosophy Pages: 27 (7086 words) Published: December 10, 2013
UNGS 2030

MATERIALISM

Table of Contents
1.0

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 2

2.0

DEFINITION OF MATERIALISM ............................................................................... 3

3.0

HISTORY OF MATERIALISM .................................................................................... 3

3.1 PERSPECTIVE OF MIND .............................................................................................. 4 3.2 GREEK AND ROMAN MATERIALISM ...................................................................... 5 3.3 MODERN MAERIALISM .............................................................................................. 6 3.4 TWENTIETH CENTURY MATERIALISM .................................................................. 8 3.5 AXIAL AGE .................................................................................................................... 9 3.6 COMMON ERA ............................................................................................................ 10 3.7 MODERN ERA.............................................................................................................. 10 4.0

CONCEPTS OF MATERIALISM ............................................................................... 11

4.1 MATERIALISM IN PRE-20TH CENTURY .................................................................. 11 4.2 MODERN MATERIALISM & SOME OF ITS MAIN CONCEPTS ........................... 11 4.3 MATERIALISM ............................................................................................................ 12 4.4 MATERIALISM: ONTOLOGICAL & METHODOLOGICAL ................................... 15 4.5 MATERIALISM IN ISLAM ......................................................................................... 16 5.0

SOLUTIONS TO PREVENT MATERIALISM .......................................................... 18

6.0

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 20

1

UNGS 2030

MATERIALISM

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Materialism is the belief that only physical matter exists, and that there is no spiritual world. Materialism is a theory that physical matter is the only or fundamental reality and that all beings and processes and phenomena can be explained as manifestations or results of matter. In materialistic worldview, only matter matters. Everything that is not physical and material is not accepted.

It rejects, therefore, the existence of God or gods on whom the universe would depend for its existence or mode of operation; it denies the existence of angels or spirit; it questions the notion of a soul, if taken to be an immaterial entity separable, in principle, from the human body. Its two main targets are therefore theism and idealistic views of human nature. Theism means belief in the existence of a god or gods, specifically of a creator who intervenes in the universe.

The term „materialism‟ has covered a variety of theses and programs. It has quite a long history, dating back at least to Aristotle‟s objections to the „earlier thinkers‟ who overemphasize the „material element‟ in Book Alpha of his Metaphysics. It is relatively easy to identify a chain of paradigmatic materialists: Democritus, Empedocles, Lucretius, Hobbes, d‟Holbach, Vogt, Biichner, Feuerbach, Marx, J. C. C. Smart, David Lewis, and David Armstrong. Materialism encompasses much more than a thesis or set of theses in the philosophy of mind. It would not be adequate, for example, to identify materialism with the thesis that human beings (or indeed all possible persons) are essentially embodied. This would incorporate only a small part of what materialists, like Aristotle or Leibniz (at least with respect to finite and sublunary persons).

Materialism entails the affirmation of at least four central theses: I.

Everything that...

References: 1) The Islamic Worldview, department of General Studies, 2008
2) Robert, C.K., and George, B., (2010), The Waning of Materialism, 1st, United States,
Maryland, College Park, on November 14, 1996.]
5) Gutberlet, C
21,
2013
Company,
1911.
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