Evaluation is a policy tool which is used to steer, manage and improve the activities of and investments in public sector research organisations. It is also used to change the distribution of funding among research organisations. Modes and mechanisms of evaluation have been developing over recent decades as budget holders have demanded accountability for public money spent, in common with other areas of public expenditure. In addition to simply justifying research budgets at a political level is the desire for evaluation to reveal the breadth of impacts of research, and the relative academic quality of research organisations and the research which is formative evaluation. It will then move on to discuss how it can be used to enhance program development and a conclusion will follow. A comprehensive program evaluation ideally includes both formative and summative components. Both approaches can examine how an intervention was implemented, the barriers and facilitators to implementation, and the effects of the intervention on various outcomes. Although both components can provide feedback on the effectiveness of an intervention and offer ways to improve it, they differ in frequency, aim, and focus. Formative evaluations stress engagement with stakeholders when the intervention is being developed and as it is being implemented, to identify when it is not being delivered as planned or not having the intended effects, and to modify the intervention accordingly. The stakeholders include payers, clinicians, practice staff, patients and their caregivers, and other decision makers.
a formative evaluation focuses attention on ongoing, midstream assessments that feed information back to intervention implementers, allowing them to make real-time adaptations and refinements to ineffective aspects of an intervention. Formative feedback often leads to decisions about program development (such as whether to modify or revise the intervention), whereas summative feedback often...
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