BS- FINAL YEAR (MORNING)
SUBMITTED TO: SIR NISAR AHMED ZUBAIRI
190503664775ASSIGNMENT: POVERTY & ITS EFFECTS IN PAKISTAN
Poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon where poverty of income is not just single issue. Other human deprivations include lack of education, ill health, social exclusion, discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender or religion and political repression. Poverty in its narrow definition is simply lack of adequate food or income but in the broader spectrum it is lack of access to opportunities. The critics claim that poverty is on the rise in Pakistan, but the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2004-2005 comes out with statistics of GDP growth at 8.4 per cent which makes Pakistan the fastest growing economy after China. It means Pakistan’s growing poverty lies with the successive governments’ failure to translate economic growth into poverty reduction and sustainable development prospects for the poor. Hence, We can draw several lessons from Pakistan’s failure to reduce poverty even when it experienced reasonable economic growth. DEFINITIONS:
The Oxford Dictionary defines poverty as “the state of being extremely poor where in one lacks the basic human needs such as Food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education”. It is very difficult to draw a demarcation line between affluence and poverty. According to Adam Smith, “Man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessities, the conveniences and the amusements of human life”. According to the United Nations fundamentally, “Poverty is the inability of getting choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society.” According to International Labor Organization,“Poverty is a situation in which a person or household lacks the resources necessary to be able to consume a certain minimum basket of goods. The basket consists either of food, clothing, housing, and other essentials (moderate poverty) or of food alone (extreme poverty).” DrIshratHussain (Ex-Governor of State Bank of Pakistan was MSc. Chemistry and Awarded Scholarship by Pakistan to do PhD., but he returned as PhD of Economics)He writes in his Book ‘Pakistan, The Economy of Elitists’ that “The Federals and the Landlords of Pakistan are the major hurdle in the way of development of Pakistan.” Micheal P. Todaro writes in his Book “Development Economies in 3rld world” writes that “There are long and long Boulevards in the developing countries where huge Bungalows are there. In these Bungalows 2-3 Family members are living where as a small cottage is also adjusted to that Bungalow where poverty is dancing and a younger girl is having relatively better living standards among them and no one to ask her the sources of resources.” Who knows more about poverty when one is hungry and cannot afford food? One cannot buy clothes for children on festival due to low income, or does not have money to purchase medicine for them. A voice of a poor man from Kenya may help us to understand, what poverty is? “Don’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside my house. Look at the house and count the number of holes. Look at the utensils and clothes I am wearing. Look at everything and write what you see? What you see is poverty.”TYPES OF POVERTY Situational poverty: is usually caused by a sudden crisis or loss and is often temporary. Events causing situational poverty include environmental disasters, divorce, or severe health problems. Generational poverty: occurs in families where at least two generations have been born into poverty. Families living in this type of poverty are not equipped with the tools to move out of their situations. Absolute poverty: involves a scarcity of such necessities as shelter, running water, and food. Families who live in absolute poverty tend to focus on day-to-day survival. Relative poverty:...
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