JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY (JKUAT) – CBD CAMPUS
ROLES OF LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
NASSIM S. HADI
FATMA AHMED HD333-C005-2500/2014
Dr. Fred Mugambi
1st July 2014
Leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task related activities of group members. It normally involves people and an unequal distribution of power between leaders and group members. Leadership is the art or process of influencing people to perform or assigned tasks willingly, efficiently and effectively. Enabling people to feel they have a say in how they do something results in higher levels of job satisfaction and productivity. Leadership may be defined as a position of power held by an individual in a group, which provides him with an opportunity to exercise interpersonal influence on the group members for mobilizing and directing their efforts towards certain goals. The leader is at the centre of group’s power structure, keeps the group together, infuses life into it, moves it towards its goals and maintains its momentum. Leadership is a major way in which people change the minds of others, move minds of others and move organizations forward to accomplish identified goals. Leaders may emerge in a group by virtue of his personality characteristics and qualities or by virtue of common consent by group members. In the latter case, the leader derives his power from the group members. He continues in the leadership position at the pleasure of group members collectively. Leadership position exists in most group settings irrespective of the size of the group. For example, a leader of national or international standing commands widespread influence over a large number of people while the influence of the leader of a small work group in an organization is very limited. Both are leaders in their own right and fulfill our definition of leadership. Leadership results because managers possess power over their group members. Power is the ability to influence the behavior of others. As a leader he or she entails in establishing a vision, explaining the vision to people concerned or employees provide knowledge and the methods to apply in doing the various tasks within the organization and balancing the conflict of interests in an organization. Managers typically have five types of powers used in the organization management these powers are as follows: Legitimate Power- power vested in the manager due to the position he occupies in the organization. Reward- authority that a manager has to decide on who should be rewarded and what types of rewards to give. Normally this type of power motivates the employee’s performance. Coercive Power- This type of power determines the manager’s authority to punish individuals who do not perform as required. Expert Power- This type of power is determined by the knowledge and skills of the manager. Referent Power- This type of power is usually associated with the manager’s personality and strength of character. Whenever a leader or manager runs an organization might possess different types of leadership styles which enhances the performance of the organization and increases the productivity of the firm. These leadership styles are: Notably, leadership is not only an in born trait. There are different types of leaders namely: autocratic leaders, consultative leaders, democratic leaders, charismatic leaders, face savers and laissez-faire leaders. Each type of leadership has a direct impact on the organization’s performance. Autocratic leadership style- managers centralize authority and retain all the power of making decisions themselves. They normally set their own goals without considering the opinion of their followers then command their followers to execute...
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