Market orientation perspectives include the decision-making perspective (Shapiro, 1988), market intelligence perspective (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990), culturally based behavioural perspective (Narver and Slater, 1990), strategic perspective (Ruekert, 1992)  and customer orientation perspective (Deshpande et al., 1993). The two most prominent conceptulizations of market orientation are those given by Kohli and Jaworski (1990) and Narver and Slater (1990). While Kohli and Jaworski (1990) considers market orientation as the implementation of the marketing concept, Narver and Slater (1990) considers it as an organisational culture. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) defined market orientation as "the organization-wide generation of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments and organization-wide responsiveness to it"  According to them, the marketing concept is a business philosophy, whereas the term market orientation refers to the actual implementation of the marketing concept. They added that "a market orientation appears to provide a unifying focus for the efforts and projects of individuals and departments within the organization." On the other hand, Narver and Slater (1990) defined market orientation as "the organization culture that most effectively and efficient creates the necessary behaviours for the creation of superior value for buyers and, thus, continuous superior performance for the business."  As such, they consider market orientation as an organisational culture consisting of three behavioral components, namely, i) customer orientation, ii) competitor orientation and iii) interfunctional coordination. Market orientation measurement scales
In order to measure market orientation, the two most widely used scales are MARKOR  and MKTOR  The mktor scale is a 15-item, 7-point Likert-type scale, with all points speciﬁed. In this measure, market orientation is conceptualised as a one dimensional construct, with three...
References: 1. ^ Ruekert, Robert W. (1992). Developing a Market Orientation: An Organizational Strategy Perspective. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 9(3),225-45.
2. ^ Deshpande R., Farley J. U., Webster F. E. Jr. (1993). Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness. Journal of Marketing, 57(1),23-37.
3. ^ Kohli, A.K. & Jaworski, B.J. (1990). Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications. The Journal of Marketing, 54(2),1-18.
4. ^ a b Narver, J.C. & Slater, S.F. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 20-34.
5. ^ Kohli, A.K.; Jaworski B.J. & Kumar A.(1993). MARKOR: A measure of market Orientation. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(4), 467-477.
6. ^ Deshpande R., Farley J. U. (1998) Measuring Market Orientation: Generalization and Synthesis. Journal of Market-Focused Management, 2(3)213-232.
7. ^ Desphande 1998 in: Benjamin Teeuwsen (2013). "www.chiligum.com". Chiligum Strategies. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
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