“Advertising succeeds or fails depending on how well it communicates the desired information and attitudes to the right people at the right time and at the right cost.” (Fill 2002)
Action (Adopted from Fill 2002)
Russell Colley (1961) developed this model to set advertising objectives and measuring the results, it was termed as “Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results – DAGMAR”. As per the DAGMAR model the main objective of advertising is to take the customer through 4 levels of understanding. Awareness- awareness of the product has to be developed, the consumer must be aware of the product so getting attention should be the main objective of creating awareness. Comprehension- the consumer should have knowledge about what the product is and also the benefits of usage of the product. Conviction- the consumer must be mentally convinced to buy the product or at least to try the product once. Action- finally the consumer should actually purchase the product.
• Awareness: has to be developed or sometimes refined or sustained in accordance with the market characteristics and during certain situations the organization may face.
When buyers are aware of the existence of the product, awareness has only needs to be sustained. Although widely popular Coke ads are repeatedly shown only to retain the existing awareness levels.
When the low levels of awareness are found, the primary objective is to create awareness of the product. Gillette Ad featuring Roger Federer, Tiger Woods and Rahul Dravid was created in effort to get the required attention and increase awareness levels by the use of well known celebrities.
• Comprehension: awareness alone cannot stimulate a purchase. Buyers need to know about the product and this can be done by providing information about specific brand attributes. In an attempt to persuade people to buy their products, it may become necessary to compare it with other products and provide an additional benefit. Mc Donald’s promoted their products on environmental claims, saying that they only used environmental friendly products.
• Conviction: the next step is to create an interest and convince the customers to try the product. This can be done through messages demonstrating products uniqueness over a rival. Many Ads like Bajaj Pulzar’s ad that had a tag line “Only for Real Men” almost hinted that those who preferred other were women.
• Action: is communicating with the buyers to engage them in purchase activity. The most effective tool is personal selling. By the use of interpersonal skills buyers can be engaged to purchase the product. Also communication can be maintained through the use of toll free numbers, reply cards, coupons etc. The best example is The Metro newspaper which has its agents distributing free in almost all major locations.
The concept of the differentiated marketing mix; within this you should compare likely differences between each element of the mix (4Ps) for products targeted on two specific segments as:
1. Skin care/cosmetic products for non-wage earning teenage girls vs 50+ year old A/B/C1 women
Differentiated marketing is multisegment marketing, wherein, it is targeted towards multiple segments. It is a market coverage strategy whereby a company attempts to appeal to two or more clearly defined market segments with a specific product and unique marketing strategy tailored to each separate segment. Typically differentiated marketing creates more total sales than undifferentiated marketing, but it also increases the costs of doing business. Differentiated marketing is aimed at two or more distinct consumer groups, with different retailing approaches for each group that is each element of the mix (4Ps) for the products targeted are different (Baker 1999)....
References: Fill, C. (2002), Marketing Communications - Contexts, Strategies and Applications, 3rd Edition, UK, Prentice Hall
Baker, M (1999), The Marketing Book, 4th Edition, UK, Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann
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