“Introduction of man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea-water, and reduction of amenities.”
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based.
In the past many substances were recklessly dumped in the ocean and it was assumed that they could be easily absorbed without any damage to the marine environment. Ocean dumping includes such materials as sewage sludge, industrial waste, explosives, and particularly huge quantities of dredge spoils. Marine pollution includes a range of threats including from land-based sources, oil spills,
eutrophication (nutrient enrichment),
persistent organic pollutants (POP’s),
heavy metals from mine tailings and other sources,
overfishing and destruction of coastal and marine habitats
There are three main types of inputs of pollution into the ocean:
Direct discharge of waste into the oceans,
=>Pollutants enter rivers and the sea directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of hazardous and toxic wastes. =>Inland mining for copper, gold. etc., is another source of marine pollution. Most of the pollution is simply soil, which ends up in rivers flowing to the sea.
Runoff into the waters due to rain,
Surface runoff from farming, as well as urban runoff and runoff from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbours, can carry soil...
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