Cannabis was also known to the ancient Assyrians, who discovered it's psychoactive properties through the Aryans. Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke), a probable origin of the modern word "cannabis." Cannabis was also introduced by the Aryans to the Scythians, Thracians, and Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai- "those who walk on smoke or clouds") burned cannabis flowers to induce a state of trance.
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. One writer has claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews and early Christians due to the similarity between the Hebrew word "qannabbos" ("cannabis") and the Hebrew phrase "aromatic cane". It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalanders.
John Gregory Bourke described use of "mariguan", which he identifies as Cannabis indica or Indian hemp, by Mexican residents of the Rio Grande region of Texas in 1894. He described its uses for treatment of asthma, to expedite delivery, to