A Manual for Writers
of Term Papers, Theses,
to &u+, Edtttn~
On Writing, Editing, and Publishing
Getting into Print
Walter W. Powell
Writing for Social Scientists
Howard S. Becker
Chicago Guide for Preparing
Prepared by the Staff of the
University of Chicago Press
Tales of the Field
John Van Maanen
A Handbook of
Frances W. Zweifel
The Craft of Translation
John Biguenet and
Rainer Schulte, editors
Kate L. Turabian
Joseph M. Williams
Mapping It Out
Nancy C. Mulvany
John Grossman and Alice Bennett
Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes
Robert M. Emerson, Rachel I.
Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw
Glossary of Typesetting Terms
Richard Eckersley, Richard
Angstadt, Charles M. Ellerston,
Richard Hendel, Naomi B.
Pascal, and Anita Walker Scott
The Craft of Research
Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G.
Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams
The University of Chicago Press
Chicago and London
Kate L. Turabian (1893-1987) was dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago from 1930 to 1958. John Grossman prepared and Alice Bennett copyedited the fourteenth edition of The Chicugo Munuul of Style. Portions of this book have been adapted from The Chicago Munuul of Style, 14th edition, 0 1969, 1982, 1993 by The University of Chicago, and from A Munuulfor Writers of Term Pupers, Theses, und Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, revised and expanded for the fifth edition by Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637
The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London
0 1937, 1955, 1967, 1973, 1987, 1996 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved
Sixth edition, published 1996
Printed in the United States of America
04 03 02
01 00 99 98 97 96 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ISBN: O-226-81626-5 (cloth)
Parts of the Paper
Abbreviations and Numbers
Spelling and Punctuation
Capitalization, Italics, and Quotation Marks
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Turabian, Kate L.
A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations / Kate L. Turabian.-6th ed. / rev. by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. p. cm.-(Chicago guides to writing, editing, and publishing)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Dissertations, Academic. 2. Report writing. 1. Grossman, John, 1924- II. Bennett, Alice, 1938% III. Title. IV. Series.
@The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI 239.48-1984.
Parenthetical References and Reference Lists
Comparing the Two Documentation Systems
Preparing the Manuscript
Formats and Sample Layouts
Kate L. Turabian designed this manual as a guide to suitable style for presenting formal papers-term papers, theses, dissertations-in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Over the course of sixty years the book has become established as one of the basic reference works for undergraduate and graduate students in many disciplines. This sixth edition has been prompted by publication of the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and by new guidelines on dissertations from the Office of Academic Publications at the University of Chicago. The University of Chicago Press receives many inquiries about Kate Turabian and the history of her manual. A reviewer for Quill and Scroll...
Citations: Experts, II, Economic and Financial, 1933,
Experts. II. Economic and Financial. 1933.
Economic Development in Underdeveloped
Countries, 1951, II.B.2.
Economic Affairs. 1951. Methods of
financing economic development in
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