Native American’s View of Manifest Destiny
American territorial expansion was rejected by many groups of people for various reasons and Native Americans were no different. Native Americans resisted American territorial expansion in several ways. The following essay will not only consist of reasons for Native American resistance but also provide proof from several primary sources. These sources include Tecumseh’s Appeal to the Osages, where Tecumseh tries to unite dozens of Indian tribes against the United States expansion efforts, Black Hawk’s Encroachment by White Settlers, where Black Hawk, a Sac Indian war chief, conveys his life story to try and justify his actions in the Black Hawk war against the American settlers, and an Encounter between Omaha Hunters and White Squatters in Iowa, where a hostile encounter between Omaha Hunters and White Squatters was the result of dramatically different conceptions of landownership amongst them. Tecumseh, a Shawnee diplomat and warrior, saw his homeland being invaded by white settlers and believed that only a pan-Indian confederacy could defeat the encroaching United States (Greenburg, pg. 57). To make this idea a reality, Tecumseh rode to dozens of different Indian villages pleading them to join the efforts against American territorial expansion and urging them to fight to reclaim their land. Tecumseh advised, “nothing will pacify [the white men] but the destruction of all the red men,” and that white men “wish to kill us, or drive us back, as they would wolves and panthers…the white men are not friends to the Indians” (Greenburg, pg. 58). “If you do not unite with us, they will first destroy us, and then you will fall an easy prey to them,” he told each tribe. He warned each tribe that they alone could not hold off the white man, “we must be united…we must fight each other’s battles” (Greenburg, pg. 59) Despite Tecumseh’s valiant efforts to unify Indian peoples against American expansion, it did not stop the United...
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