Homework Chapter 3 (2, 6, 7, 8, 9 ,11, 12, 13, 14, 16)
Develop your own model of the steps in the planning process.
First, planning process is a set of steps and strategies to achieve a goal or an aim. The planning process may consist of a missions and visions to help in achieving the objectives that must be identified in an earlier stage. Steps that are required in the planning process include: 1.
Start with addressing the mission of this project.
Create alternatives ways to archive this mission.
Examining each alternative by creating different scenarios for each one. 4.
Evaluating each alternative by consulting with experts.
Selecting a final approach to accomplish your mission.
Evaluate every step and this strategies as the project moves along.
Always remember that planning involves knowing what you are trying to achieve or what is the goal and in what time frame. Once the goal and end date have been determine, one can generate a project plan with other stake holder to get their input and commitment to plan so that it is more realistic. Planning involves the following sequence: Recognize Problem or Opportunity => Generate Mission and Vision => Assess the Situation (Gather Info) => Develop Strategies, Goals, Objectives and Alternatives => Implement Best Alternative => Monitor Results
The textbook explains it best in the section, “planning provides a method of identifying objectives and designing a sequence of programs and activities to achieve these objectives.” In addition, “there seems to be as many diagrams of this process as there are authors.” A planning process model that has always worked with is by Dr. Deming. The Plan-Do-Check-Act. This plan is used for the following: ●
For continuous improvement.
When starting a new project.
When developing a new or improved design of a process, product or service. ●
When defining a repetitive work process.
When planning data collection and analysis in order to verify and prioritize problems or root causes. ●
When implementing any change.
Plan – Recognize an opportunity and plan a change.
Do – Test the change. Carry out a small-scale study.
Check – Review the test, analyze the results and identify what you’ve learned. Act – Take Take action based on what you learned in the study step: If the change did not work, go through the cycle again with a different plan (feedback). If you were successful, incorporate what you learned from the test into wider changes.
Final step is forecasting, there must be alternatives to the plan base on the forecasts.
Briefly outline the concept of management by objectives (MBO) and the steps involved in implementing this technique in organizations.
MBO is a way to organize and delegate the rules between superiors and subordinates in order to accomplish the goals of an organization MBO’s are also always generated for the overall corporation by the executive with input from middle management. These MBO’s are then present to the board of directors by the executive management team for approval. Once the goals for the corporation have been established, executive management present them to middle management for execution and getting commitments for lower level staff members. Each director level has 5 to 10 major goals that he needs to meet and his/her subordinates MBO’s are based on what the director has committed to. End of year reviews and pay raises are then based on the accomplishments per the MBO.
Source: “Managing Engineering and Technology”
Steps in MBO are generally as follows:
Superior and subordinate should have an understanding of the overall organization goals and objectives. 2.
Superior and subordinate should meet to establish objectives for the subordinate’s over the next six months or year. 3.
These objectives should not be beyond reach and should be quantifiable or verifiable. 4.
The result of negotiating the objectives between superior and subordinate should be mutual...
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