`MANAGING AND PROTECTING THE MANGROVE FORESTRYIN THE PHILIPPINES` Saint John
M.S. in Plant Science
`Subject Professor in Biol 210`
MANAGING AND PROTECTING THE MANGROVE FORESTRY IN THE PHILIPPINES INTRODUCTION
KNOWN CONSEQUENCES OF MANGROVE DEFORESTATION
HISTORY OF MAJOR MANGROVE HABITAT USES AND CHANGES IN THE PHILIPPINES ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF MANGROVE HABITAT CHANGES A. Environmental Impacts
B. Social Impacts
VI.MANGROVE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS
VII.CONTRACT REFORESTATION PROJECT
VIII.SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Filipinos, whose main daily diet consists of fish and rice, are highly dependent on the coastal resources. Traditionally in the Philippines, the development of coastal resources, including mangroves, has been exploitative in nature. Government policies, which dictated development in both the uplands and coastal areas, have been based mainly on abundant available resources without due consideration for sustainable options for future generations. It was only towards the end of the 1970’s when the government realized the fishery value of mangroves. A National Mangrove Committee was formed in the then Ministry of Natural Resources, and a Mangrove Forest Research Center was created under the Forest Research Institute of the Philippines. Notsurprisingly, this “decade of awakening” was also significantly marked with an alarming decline in fish catch. The 1980’s and 1990’s were marked with significant efforts to rehabilitate destroyed mangroves and related coastal resources. In 1981, small islands indented by mangroves containing an aggregate area of about 4,326 hectares were declared Wilderness Areas under Presidential Proclamation No. 2151. Also in the same year, Presidential Proclamation No. 2152 was issued declaring the entire island of Palawan and some parcels of mangroves in the country containing an aggregate area of 74,267 hectares as Mangrove Swamp Forest Reserves. In 1987, the Mangrove Forest Research Center was expanded in its concerns and coverage, becoming nationwide in scope under the Freshwater and Coastal Ecosystems Section of the Ecosystems Research and Development Service of every regional office of the present Department of Environment and Natural Resources. `The Coastal Environment Program (CEP) and the Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP) were launched in the regional offices of DENR in 1993 and in 1996, respectively, expanding the environment department’s concerns over all coastal ecosystems. These programs promote community-based approaches to coastal resource management, making direct stakeholders partners of government in the sustainable development and management ofmangroves, sea grass beds, coral reefs, and other coastal resources.` II.MANGROVE DEFORESTATION
`Mangroves are among the best natural defense of sheltered coastlines against wind and water during storms. In the Philippines, the rate of destruction, extrapolated from international data sources, is between 40 percent and 45 percent in the last 10 years. Mangrove areas in Bulacan, Davao, Palawan, the two Mindoros, Bohol, Samar and Zamboanga have shrunk, putting their long-term survival at risk. If this rate of loss is not reversed, we would have no mangrove stands by the middle of the century. ` Mangrove destruction is due mainly to human settlement and aquaculture but as the pace of urbanization quickens, reclamation and pollution will begin to take their toll. Mangrove forests are ecosystems that sustain unique plant and animal species, many of which we still have to discover and study. It’s possible that many of them have become extinct with unforeseen effects on fragile mangrove ecology. Loss of functional diversity is particularly serious because mangrove ecosystems are species-poor. The FAO reports that...
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