Management is a social science which covers planning, coordinating, directing, supervising and organizing resources (human, materials and financial), which leadership is the guidance and encouragement to manage people (Olufeani Oyedele, 2009). According to F. John Reh, a manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. Different types of manager responsible for different sections in a company. An operation manager responsible for the daily operation of company. Accounting section is supervise by an accounting manager. As there are various management functions in a business, hence a manager is responsible in planning, directing, monitoring and controlling people and their work. Leader is a person or a thing that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of central or influence over others (Business Dictionary, n.d.). leaders define the expected direction of the company, ensure the effective communication style, analysis the future industry trends and distinguish from competition. There are different, similar and overlap characteristics between managers and leaders.
Different in characteristic
According to Abraham Zaleznik, the difference between managers and leaders lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in the psyches, of chaos and order. One of the different in characteristic between managers and leaders is manager embrace process while leaders tolerate chaos. Managers embrace process as they rely on the control of people. Managers have subordinates which process work according to what had been told. Subordinates follow the word of managers as they have been promise a reward, which is salary, for doing so. This management style is called transactional. For example, this management style useful in crisis management, in emergency respond and in situations when activities...
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