Table of contents
Table of contents ii
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 BODY OF ARGUEMENT 1
2.1 THE ROLE OF THE MANAGER 1
2.2 THE ROLE OF THE LEADER 1
2.3 OVERLAP BETWEEN THE ROLES OF MANAGER AND LEADER 2
2.4 CAN THE ROLES OF THE MANAGER AND LEADER BE DEVELOPED? 2
2.5 CAN GREAT LEADERS BE DEVELOPED, OR ARE THEY BORN? 3
3 CONCLUSION 4
4 REFERENCES 4
To debate the statement ‘managers can be developed, but leaders are born, not made’ we first need to gain an understanding of the roles played by managers and leaders, outlining the perceived differences and how these have evolved over time. This will provide the context for discussion of whether management and leadership can be developed, and whether there are particular attributes people are born with that allow for the achievement of greatness.
2 BODY OF ARGUEMENT
2.1 THE ROLE OF THE MANAGER
Historical perceptions regarding the role of the manager focussed on implementation of processes to achieve set objectives, where final outcomes justified the means (El-Meligi, 2005). The position demanded tangible skills such as budgeting, planning and the organisation of staff (Angelucci, 2005). Zaleznik (1977) even inferred a robotic nature to the role when focussing on the importance of control, referring to systemic selection and attainment of goals with a management aim of reducing choices. Whilst he did refer to motivation and reward in his research, it was with little emphasis or importance.
Drucker (1993) provided a contextual view, implying the definition of a manager has evolved over time. Moving from simply being responsible for subordinates shortly after World War II, to being responsible for the performance of others in the 1950’s, and now, in its broadest form, of being responsible for the application of performance and knowledge.
Whilst the terms may differ between expert opinions, the common theme
References: Adair, J. 2010. Strategic Leadership. United States: Kogan Page Limited Angelucci, P Bennis, W. 2009. The Essential Bennis. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Covey, S Drucker, P. F. 1993. Post-Capitalist Society. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. El-Meligi, M. 2005. Leading starts in the mind. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Gladwell, M. 2008. Outliers. United States: Little, Brown and Company Heifetz, R Mandela, N. 1994. Long Walk to Freedom. London: Abacus Parks, S Singe, P. M. 1997. Looking Ahead: Implications of the Present. Harvard Business Review, 75(5), 18-32. Thomas R. J. 2008. Crucibles of leadership: how to learn from experience to become a great leader. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Zaleznik, A. 1977. Manager and Leaders: Are They Different? Harvard Business Review, 55(3), 67-78