Management Yesterday and Today

Topics: Systems theory, Input, Output Pages: 2 (673 words) Published: May 31, 2014
Question #3:
Using Figure 2.4, describe a bakery as a system. Do the same for a supermarket.

Bakery as an open system of organisation need raw materials in making bread and building bakery and its facilities, human resources, capital, technology and information as its inputs. Raw materials includes the following inputs, with the corresponding employees’ work activities as processes and the result or outputs:

Flour, yeast, fats, oils, electricity (refrigeration)
Useable ingredients, spoiled ingredients
Flour, yeast, fats, oils, water, electricity (or gas)
Raw dough, waste dough, cleaning wastes, packaging wastes
Raw dough
Risen dough, waste dough, cleaning wastes
Risen dough, electricity (or gas)
Bread, heat emissions, waste bread fragments
Bread, plastic wraps, wire baskets, electricity
Packaged bread, packaging wastes
Packaged bread, vehicle fuel
Bread in retail shops, damaged bread, vehicle exhaust emissions Unsold, damaged bread returned from retail shops
Dispose of returns
Waste bread (sent to stock feed producers)
Pest control
Pesticide residues, dead pests
Cleaning consumables, water, electricity (heat water)
General cleaning
Cleaning wastes, dirty water

When identifying unit process inputs and outputs, try to talk with employees working with those processes. However, while these employees will give good information, some inputs and waste outputs may be overlooked because they are too familiar with the process. Talk to other employees and, perhaps more importantly, walk around the business premises and take a good look. For every input, there must be a corresponding output. Make sure that there is an output for each input to a unit process. If there is a weight change in a raw material or product, account for the difference and make sure it is included in the input/output diagram. Remember all wash water, atmospheric emissions,...
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