A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations need to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing five primary components: hardware, software, data, procedures, people. Management information systems are distinct from other information systems, in that they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Data
Data are values of qualitative or quantitative variables, belonging to a set of items. Data in computing are represented in a structure, often tabular, a tree or a graph structure. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be visualised using graphs or images. Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e., unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numbers, characters and is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next. Information
Information, in its most restricted technical sense, is a sequence of symbols that can be interpreted as a message. Information can be recorded as signs, or transmitted as signals. Information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system. Conceptually, information is the message being conveyed. The meaning of this concept varies in different contexts. Moreover, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy. Computer based information systems
Information systems (IS) is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data. The study bridges business and computer science using the theoretical foundations of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes within a computer science discipline. Computer Information System(s) (CIS) is a field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society while IS emphasizes functionality over design. Any specific Information System aims to support operations, management and decision making. In a broad sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.
A Computer(-Based) Information System is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer based information system are: •
Hardware- these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data and information. •
Software- are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data. •
Databases- are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data. •
Networks- are a connecting system that allows diverse computers to distribute resources. •
Procedures- are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output. The first four components (hardware, software, database and network) make up what is known as the information technology platform. Information technology workers could...
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