Marnie Blotsky (4133985)
MGMT310 Principles and Theory of Management B001 Spr 11
May 28, 2011
The evolution of management can be traced back to the start of the Industrial Revolution. “Management and leadership abilities were not thought of as learnable skills but derived from one’s heredity. There did not exist the need for a theory of management: leaders were born, not made.” (Montana & Charnov, 2008, p. 14). This belief ignored the need for a written theory of management and focused on the practice itself. As industrialization increased and spread, problems related to the factory system began to appear. Large numbers of workers were needed to keep up with the rapid economic expansion. Many of these workers were immigrant, unskilled, and non-English speaking. Managers did not know how to train these employees. This led to a scientific study of management and to what is today known as management theory. Classical School of Management
The first management theory, Scientific Management, arose because of a need to increase worker efficiency and productivity. Emphasis of this approach was placed on the best way to get the most work accomplished. Focus was on examining the work process and developing the skills of the workforce. The classical school owes its origins to several contributors; including Frederick Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt, and Mary Parker Follet. Frederick Taylor is often referred to as the “father of scientific management”. He believed that organizations should study and gain an understanding of work and develop precise procedures to complete it. “Taylor believed that economic prosperity could only be achieved by maximal worker productivity, which in turn, would be the product of making workers more efficient” (Montana & Charnov, 2008, p. 15). By analyzing every job through scientific observations, he felt there was only one best way of doing a job. He believed managers should study each job and determine the minimum necessary steps needed to complete it. Individuals step would be analyzed to determine the most efficient way of performing it. Managers would then total the time of each individual task to determine the optimum amount of time necessary to complete the entire task. Workers would then follow the precise instructions of management. If tasks were not completed in the optimal amount of given, workers were removed from the job. He believed this system gave managers power over workers. Workers could no longer resist management demands. Managers possessed the knowledge and workers performed their detailed steps. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were a husband and wife team that studied job motions. “The Gilbreths are considered pioneers in making use of motion studies to improve worker efficiency” (Montana & Charnov, 2008, p. 16). Frank analyzed worker actions to determine the best possible method of performing a given job. “When he understood all the motions, he would seek to improve the efficiency of each action and reduce the number of motions required to accomplish the job–a process called job simplification” (Montana & Charnov, 2008, p. 16). Managers would then select, train, and develop workers with devised procedures. Lillian extended this theory into the home in an effort to determine the ideal way to complete household tasks. Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart; a work scheduling chart that measures planned and completed work along throughout each stage of completion. The Gantt chart is a powerful planning and evaluation tool used by managers. He believed inefficiency was a result of management unrealistic production standards. According to Gantt, “work standards should be determined by scientific observation and measurement, and only then may realistic work standards be set” (Montana & Charnov, 2008, p. 17). Gantt also believed that workers should be rewarded for good work through a bonus system. He felt that workers...
References: Montana, P. & Charnov, B. (2008). Management. Hauppauge, NY: Wadsworth Publishing.
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