Malnutrition in Northern Part of Nigeria

Topics: Local Government Areas of Nigeria, Nigeria, Nutrition Pages: 8 (2628 words) Published: June 18, 2013
Summary Findings of Cross-Sectional Nutrition Survey Northern Nigeria, February 2012 1. INTRODUCTION Anthropometric and retrospective mortality survey was conducted in eight states of Northern Nigeria from 6th February to 9th March 2012. A cross sectional survey design with two stages of cluster sampling method was used. The survey was conducted in Borno, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara states. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the nutritional status of children under-five years and women 15-49 years of age, to assess infant and young child feeding practice and to estimate crude and under-five mortality rates. Overall, 7,186 children under-five and 6,098 women were interviewed from 4,733 households from a total of 239 clusters.

2. RESULTS 2.1. Child Nutritional Status The anthropometric results of children 6 to 59 months were calculated using WHO 2006 growth reference. Aberrant data which mainly resulted from measurement error were excluded from the analysis. The global acute malnutrition (WHZ and/or bilateral edema) results are presented in figure 1 below.

Ten cases of bilateral edema were found in seven of the eight surveyed states; there were no cases of marasmic kwashiorkor (children with SAM and bilateral edema). Table 1: Prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition in children 6 to 59 months of age by state (WHZ WHO 2006 & MUAC WHO/UNICEF 2009) Acute Malnutrition WHZ State N 701 814 845 867 688 689 765 719 Global Severe Acute Mal- Acute Malnutrition nutrition 13.8 (10.6,17.8) 8 (6.4,9.9) 6.5 (5.2,8.2) 6.8 (5.4,8.6) 7.1 (5.0,10.1) 11.9 (9.4,15.0) 14.5 (11.6,18.1) 6.4 (4.8,8.4) 2.6 (1.8,3.7) 1.5 (0.8,2.7) 1.1 (0.6,2.0) 0.6 (0.3,1.3) 1.2 (0.6,2.3) 2.9 (1.8,4.6) 3.1 (2.1,4.7) 1.4 (0.8,2.5) 738 776 707 708 869 852 820 Acute Malnutrition MUAC N 716 Global Severe Acute Acute MalMalnutrition nutrition 8 (5.2,12.0) 10 (7.9,12.6) 8.1 (5.3,12.1) 7.6 (5.6,10.3) 7.9 (5.5,11.2) 10.2 (7.7,13.4) 10.2 (7.4,13.8) 11.7 (9.3,14.6) 1.7 (0.9,3.3) 2 (1.0,3.7) 2.1 (1.1,4.0) 1.2 (0.6,2.3) 2.1 (1.0,4.6 ) 3.7 (2.5,5.4) 2.4 (1.4,4.3) 3 (2.0,4.4)

Borno Jigawa Kano Katsina Kebbi Sokoto Yobe Figure 1: Global acute malnutrition (WHZ and/or bilateral edema) and confidence interval by state. Zamfara

The highest and lowest prevalence of GAM were found in Yobe and Zamfara states at 15.4 % (11.6 - 18.195% CI) and 6.4 % (4.8 8.4 95% CI) respectively. The prevalence of severe acute malnutrition ranged from 0.6% in Katsina to 3.1% in Yobe states. Given the large number of population in surveyed areas (over 44 million), the result shows that considerable number of children are acutely malnourished and needs nutritional support.

Note: results in brackets are 95% confidence interval

Stunting or chronic malnutrition is a failure to grow in stature, and occurs as a result of inadequate nutrition over a longer time period. Underweight is a composite measure for stunting and wasting and is used globally to track progress with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Chronic malnutrition measures height for age and underweight measures weight for age and the results are shown in table 2 below.

Note: According to WHZ, Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) is
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