Major Plant Group

Topics: Maize, Starch, Corn syrup Pages: 28 (5289 words) Published: April 24, 2014


Team 5 Research Paper
Major Plant Group:
Cereal Grains and Forage Grasses: (Corn)
Averett University
BIO-299
Cluster-O709

November 28, 2011

Table of Contents
Table of Contents1
Major Plant Group:2
Historical & cultural 3
Plant biology 4
Plant pests & pathological agents5
Pest #1 Chinch bug: 6
Pest #2 Stalk borer: 7
Pest #3 Corn beetles: 7
Pest #4 Black cutworms: 8
Pest #5 Wireworms: 9
Pest #6 Corn maggots: 9
Pathological agent #1, Smut: 10
Pathological agent #2 Stalk Rot: 10
Pathological agent #3 Rust: 11
Business & economics 11
Common Processes Used12
Ethanol:12
Oil products:13
High Fructose Corn Syrup:14
Starch products: 15
Paper and Corrugate: 15
Animal nutrition: 16
Summary 17
References27

Major Plant Group:
Plants play a vital role in our everyday life, since the dawn of mankind planting and harvesting has been front-and-center in cultures through the world. Plants and their many by products, ranging from medicines, thatched roofs, and most important food, plants and man have a symbiotic relationship. One family of plants; the cereal grains and forage grasses, primarily corn, will be the focus of this paper. Corn has been notable throughout history, it is found in biblical history, as well as a major centerpiece for the Inca, Aztec, and Mayan cultures. Historical & cultural

The importance of the chosen representative plant, may very well lie in the commonly know household coin phrase, “eat more fiber”. Cereal grains and forge grasses consume more than 70 percent of the world’s farmlands. In addition, grains and grasses provide nearly 50 percent of the global calorie intake by both humans and livestock. (Simpson, 2001) Wheat, barley and rice have unique ties in providing the major staple to other regains of the world, however; corn is the mainstay for the western cultures. Even though within the grass family, species number over 9000, only 35 have been harvested globally, (appendix, figure 1). Furthermore of these 35 species, only about six are among the major cereals, with corn (maize) being the only one in the New World that is a native grain. (Simpson) In the United States’ heart land, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, South Dakota and Nebraska are the top producers of corn, (appendix, figure 9). Of these states Iowa produced over 20,000,000 bushels, (appendix figure 9) of corn per county in 2010 (Agriculture, 2010). Corn and beans have a very special relationship, one could say symbiotic, the following store give one culture’s view of corn. “An Indian legend says that the association came about when man-corn was looking for a wife. Squash asked to be considered, but she was rejected because she had the habit of wondering lasciviously over the ground. Bean, by contrast, clasped the corn so dearly that the corn was assured of her fidelity and consequently chose her for his bride (Simpson, p126).” This relationship between corn and beans will be further discussed later. It is easy to see how corn is one of the United States’ top revenue producing products. Plant biology

The biology of corn is deeply rooted in its contribution to man’s need for sustenance through the centuries. Between wheat, squash, and rice, corn notably has been the front-runner for millennia. “Among the important modern cereal grains, corn is the most efficient in converting water and carbon dioxide into foodstuffs. Moreover, it can be cultivated in both tropical and temperate areas (Simpson, p126).” Corn (maze) has been found in all natural civilizations of the world, this leads into the biology of the world’s oldest and leading grain’s natural structure. The corn plant is comprised of six major parts, the roots, sheath or (stalk), leaf blades, ears, ear silk, tassel internode and the tassel, (appendix, figure 8). The relationship between corn and beans is one that is extremely important when it comes to their symbiotic...

References: Corn Palace, Mitchell South Dakota. (2010) Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from http://www.cornpalace.org/
Corn Refiners Association
Corrugated Cardboard. November (2011). 23 November 2011 Retrieved from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Corrugated-Cardboard.html.
Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois Extension. (2001) Field corn diseases in Illinois. Retrieved from http://cropdisease.cropsci.illinois.edu/corn/
Facts About Corn
Illinois Corn. (2011) Creating Opportunities For Increasing Corn Value and Utilization. Corn data. Retrieved from http://www.ilcorn.org/
Iowa Corn Promotion Board/Iowa Corn Growers Association
Renewable Fuels Association (2011) Statistics retrieved from http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/statistics
Russell, C
Simpson, Beryl Brintnall., and Molly Conner-Ogorzaly. Economic Botany: Plants in Our World. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
University of Missouri-Columbia (1998) Corn Insects Pests, a Diagnostic Guide Retrieved from http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/manuals/m00166.htm
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
Worldwide Breakfast Cereal Mfg. Industry (NAICS 31123). (cover story). (2011). Worldwide Breakfast Cereal Manufacturing Industry Report, 1-104.
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