Main Perspectives in Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Classical conditioning, Unconscious mind Pages: 7 (2372 words) Published: December 18, 2012
[P1] Create a booklet that explains the six main psychological perspectives. Behaviourist Learning Theory
This theory was founded by JB Watson in 1915 and has now become a worldwide view. The theory suggests that a learner is essentially passive and is more likely to respond to environmental stimuli or that their behaviour is shaped through positive and negative reinforcement. Ivan Pavlov contributed to this theory by introducing his own theory of classical conditioning; he believed that people learn through association. The learner will begin to respond in a desired manner to a conditioned stimulus which is repeatedly presented with an unconditioned stimulus; this will cause an unconditioned or natural response. Eventually the conditioned stimulus will create the same response, the conditioned response. For example in one of Pavlov’s experiments, he uses a dog and food, the food is the unconditioned stimulus which causes an unconditioned response, salivation. At the same time as the food is presented a bell is presented as well, this is the conditioned stimulus and eventually will cause the dog to salivate even in the absence of food, and this is the conditioned response. "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." -Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977

http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm

"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." -Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977

http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm

BF Skinner also contributed to this theory by introducing his theory of operant conditioning. He believes behaviour is influenced by consequences which follow it and that this is a type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened or weakened through positive and negative reinforcement. He stated that if a learner’s behaviour is followed by positive reinforcement, they are more likely to keep doing it, but if a learner’s behaviour is followed by negative reinforcement, they are less likely to do it again. For example, if a child is refusing to do their homework and they are then told they will not be allowed dessert after dinner for arguing, they are more likely to stop arguing and do their homework because they do not want to be punished. The Social Learning Theory

The Social Learning Theory was first founded by Gabriel Trade in 1904 but was then later developed by Julian Rotter in 1954. Then after this Albert Bandura carried on their work in 1977. Bandura believed that not all types of learning could be taught through direct reinforcement and that his theory had a social element. He believed that people could learn new behaviour through watching how other people behaved. This is also known as observational learning or modelling. The Social Learning Theory has three concepts and these are: 1. People learn through observation

2. The idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process 3. The theory recognises that just because something has been learnt, it does not mean this will result in a change in the learner’s behaviour. Observational Learning:

Banduras bobo doll experiment demonstrated that children learn through watching behaviour in other people and that they imitate this behaviour when it is put...

References: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/classical+conditioning
(29/10/12)
http://vle.gloscol.ac.uk/mod/book/view.php?id=86217&chapterid=2936 (29/10/12)
http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html
http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Operant%20Conditioning (01/11/12)
http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm (01/11/12)
http://onlineclassroom.tv/files/posts/the_psychodynamic_approach_free_chapter/document00/WJEC_AS_Ch_03.pdf (05/11/12)
http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html (09/11/12)
http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newresources/approaches/as_aqb_approaches_cognitivebasics.pdf (09/11/12)
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-biological-perspective.htm (09/11/12)
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