TABLE OF CONTENTS
3. Classification of spindles 4. Parts of spindles
5. Failures in spindles
A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal. Machine tools can be operated manually, or under automatic control. Early machines used flywheels to stabilize their motion and had complex systems of gears and levers to control the machine and the piece being worked on. Soon after World War II, the numerical control (NC) machine was developed. NC machines used a series of numbers punched on paper tape or punched cards to control their motion. In the 1960s, computers were added to give even more flexibility to the process. Such machines became known as computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. NC and CNC machines could precisely repeat sequences over and over, and could produce much more complex pieces than even the most skilled tool operators. In machine tools, a spindle is a rotating axis of the machine, which often has a shaft at its heart. The shaft itself is called a spindle, but also, in shop-floor practice, the word often is used metonymically to refer to the entire rotary unit, including not only the shaft itself, but its bearings and anything attached to it. Manual assembly is prone to human errors. It is very important to check and rectify these errors. In order to avoid disasters as a result of this, we need a test rig which serves as a platform for testing and rectifying these errors. A test rig saves a lot of time and money which is very important in the competitive world.
Spindles are rotating drive shafts that serve as axes for cutting tools or hold cutting instruments in machine tools. Spindles are essential in machine tools and in manufacturing because they are used to make both parts and the tools that make parts [pic]
Fig. 1 represents a typical spindle design. The design of the spindle and the quality of the components inside the spindle are major factors that contribute to the spindle's durability and longevity.
FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR SPINDLE DESIGN
Factors that will affect the ultimate spindle design are as follows: • Amount of available space in the head
• Purpose and application
• Cost considerations
• Market demands
Benefits of spindles
Certain benefits of spindles are as follows:
• Machine tool spindles reduce the number of cuts in manufacturing by half. • Spindles provide position and transmit power to a tool (as in the case of milling machines). • They hold a rotating workpiece (as in the case of lathes). • They hold cutting tools and spin them at high torque and speed. • Spindles support many key machining tasks.
• Allow flexibility in cutting a variety of materials.
Uses of spindles
Spindles are used to perform variety of tasks like as follows: • Grinding
Applications of spindles
Spindles are critical in all kinds of manufacturing and hence used in variety of industrial applications. Spindles are used to support burrs in dental drills and cutters to put together composite materials. They also make parts for pumps and compressors used in the oil and petroleum industry. Spindles are used to make the molds used to make tires for the aircraft sector, the rolls that produce sheet metal for the automotive sector, and parts for the appliance industry. So various applications of spindles are in the following sectors: • Automobile...
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