Machine Organization: Components of the System Unit

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Machine Organization
Components of the System Unit

The Machine Cycle
1. Retrieve the next instruction from memory (as indicated by the program counter) and then increment the program counter.
Execute

Fetch

2. Decode the bit pattern in the instruction register.
Decode

3. Perform the instruction required by the instruction in the instruction register

Basic Organization of Microcomputers
CPU

CU
INPUT OUTPUT REGISTER FILE MEMORY

ALU

CPU
 Central Processing Unit
 The heart of a computer  The circuitry that controls the manipulation of data and execution of instructions

CPU
 Central Processing Unit
 Performs control, logical and arithmetic operations  Contains the Arithmetic and Logic Unit, register sets and the Control Unit

CPU
 Central Processing Unit
 The CPU communicates with the storage system (memories) and the input-output (I/O) system using buses

Gates
 The CPU is amazingly small given the immense amount of circuitry it contains
 Circuits of a computer are made of gates

Transistor
 The CPU is amazingly small given the immense amount of circuitry it contains.
 Gates, however are also made of another tiny component called a transistor, and a modern CPU has millions of transistors in its circuitry.

Moore’s Law
 According to Moore’s Law, the transistor count of the integrated circuits doubles every year

Transistor Count
Processor 16-Core SPARC T3 Six-Core Core i7
8-Core POWER7 Quad-Core z196 Dual-Core Itanium 2 Quad-Core Itanium Tukwila 8-Core Xeon NehalemEX 10-Core Xeon Westmere-Ex Transistor Count Date of Introduction Manufacture r

1,000,000,000 1,170,000,000
1,200,000,000 1,400,000,000 1,700,000,000 2,000,000,000 2,300,000,000 2,600,000,000

2010 2010
2010 2010 2006 2010 2010 2011

Sun/Oracle Intel
IBM IBM Intel Intel Intel Intel

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor_count

ALU
 Arithmetic and Logic Unit
 Performs the arithmetic, logical and shift

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