top-rated free essay

Macario Sakay

By Yumiko08 Jul 25, 2013 835 Words
Macario Sakay y de León (1870 – September 13, 1907) was a Filipino general in the Philippine Revolution against Spain and in the Philippine-American War. Sakay continued resistance against the United States following the official American declaration of the Philippine-American War's end in 1902 and in the following year became president of the Tagalog Republic, Sakay was conned by the Americans into coming down from the mountains on promise of amnesty for him and his officials, on top of the formation of Philippine Assembly composed of Filipinos to serve as the 'gate of freedom. His surrender was made to be a prerequisite for a state of peace that would supposedly ensure the election of Filipino delegates to the Philippine Assembly. Sakay believed that the struggle has shifted to constitutional means, with the Assembly as means to winning independence. Dominador Gómez, a Filipino labor leader, was authorized in 1905 by Governor General Henry Clay Ide to negotiate for the surrender of Sakay and his men. Gómez met with Sakay at his camp and argued that the establishment of a national assembly was being held up by Sakay's intransigence, and that its establishment would be the first step toward Filipino independence. Sakay agreed to end his resistance on conditions that a general amnesty be granted his men, that they be permitted to carry firearms, and that he and his officers be permitted to leave the country. Gómez assured Sakay that these conditions the would be acceptable to the Americans, and Sakay's emissary, General León Villafuerte, obtained agreement to them from the American Governor-General. Sakay and Villafuerte traveled to Manila, where they were welcomed and invited to receptions and banquets. One invitation came from the Constabulary Chief, Col. Harry H. Bandholtz. That invitation was a colonial trap and Sakay and his principal lieutenants were disarmed and arrested while the party was in progress. Sakay was accused of "bandolerismo under the Brigandage Act of Nov. 12, 1902, which interpreted all acts of armed resistance to American rule as banditry." The colonial Supreme Court of the Philippines upheld the decision.On September 13, 1907, Macario Sakay was hanged. Before his death, he made the following statement: "Death comes to all of us sooner or later, so I will face the Lord Almighty calmly. But I want to tell you that we are not bandits and robbers, as the Americans have accused us, but members of the revolutionary force that defended our mother country, the Philippines! Farewell! Long live the Republic and may our independence be born in the future! Long live the Philippines!" Sakay was one of the founders of the Nacionalista Party, which strove for Philippine independence though legal means. The party appealed to the Philippine Commission. However, the Commission passed the Sedition Law, which prohibited any form of propaganda advocating independence.[9][10] (An unrelated Nacionalista Party which survives to the present day was founded in 1907.) Sakay thus took up arms again. On November 12, 1902, the Philippine Commission passed the Bandolerism Act which proclaimed all captured resistance fighters or insurgents to be tried in court as bandits, ladrones, and robbers. In April 1904, Sakay issued his own manifesto proclaiming himself President and established his own government called the Repúblika ng Katagalugan (Tagalog Republic) in opposition to U.S. colonial rule. The U.S. Government did not recognize Sakay's government and, through the Bandolerism Act, labeled him an outlaw. The Governor General, the U.S. Government, and the U.S. military left the pursuit of Sakay in the hands of the Philippine Constabulary and Philippine Scouts. In 1905 concentration camps, often referred to as Zonas, were re-established in parts of Cavite, Batangas, and Laguna. This had little effect on Sakay and his fighters. Extensive fighting continued in Southern-Luzon for months.

Sakay was one of the founders of the Nacionalista Party, which strove for Philippine independence though legal means. The party appealed to the Philippine Commission. However, the Commission passed the Sedition Law, which prohibited any form of propaganda advocating independence.[9][10] (An unrelated Nacionalista Party which survives to the present day was founded in 1907.) Sakay thus took up arms again. On November 12, 1902, the Philippine Commission passed the Bandolerism Act which proclaimed all captured resistance fighters or insurgents to be tried in court as bandits, ladrones, and robbers. In April 1904, Sakay issued his own manifesto proclaiming himself President and established his own government called the Repúblika ng Katagalugan (Tagalog Republic) in opposition to U.S. colonial rule. The U.S. Government did not recognize Sakay's government and, through the Bandolerism Act, labeled him an outlaw. The Governor General, the U.S. Government, and the U.S. military left the pursuit of Sakay in the hands of the Philippine Constabulary and Philippine Scouts. In 1905 concentration camps, often referred to as Zonas, were re-established in parts of Cavite, Batangas, and Laguna. This had little effect on Sakay and his fighters. Extensive fighting continued in Southern-Luzon for months.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Macario Sakay

    ...Raphael Rapi 10924019 Kaspil2 C31 The movie was about the independence fighters during the American War that was led by a man named Macario Sakay. Until today, there have been many misconceptions whether this insurgence was truly patriotic or merely a bandit’s doing. This movie emphasizes that the movement was truly a revolution and not ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.