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Lung Cancer due to smoking

By keem220 Oct 18, 2013 1272 Words


Lung cancer to due smoking and air pollution
A review of Literature

Akeem Williams
6/04/2012
Health Positive Living
Professor Luster-Harvey

Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identifying factors associated with stage of diagnosis can improve our understanding of biologic and behavioral pathways of lung cancer development and detection. We used data from a prospective cohort study to evaluate associations of demographic, health history, and health behaviors with early versus late stage at diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This literature will give differences between smokers and non-smokers, as it relates to lung cancer.

Lung Cancer to due to smoking and air Population
A literature review

To begin, Lung Cancer is one the leading causes of death in the United States. Lung Cancer can be formed from numerous things. One in particular will be smoking. Cigarettes contain over 4000 chemical compounds, of which at least 400 are toxic. At least 43 are known carcinogens which cause cancer in humans. There are few that I found which are: Benzene (patrol addictive), formaldehyde (embalming fluid), ammonia (toilet cleaner), acetone (nail polish remover), nicotine (insecticide/addictive drug), carbon monoxide (car exhaust fumes), arsenic (rat poison), and hydrogen cyanide (gas chamber poison). When alight, the heat in a cigarette breaks down the tobacco to produce various substances, including carbon monoxide and nicotine.   The affects of smoking have an effect on virtually every part of the body, from the respiratory system to the reproductive system. About 87% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and is one of the most difficult cancers to treat. It is very hard to detect when it is in the earliest, most treatable stage. Fortunately, lung cancer is largely a preventable disease. But cancers account for only about half of the deaths related to smoking. Smoking is also a major cause of heart disease, bronchitis, emphysema, and stroke, and contributes to the severity of pneumonia. Furthermore, the smoke from cigarettes has a harmful health effect on those around the smoke. Nationwide, 22.3% of high school students and 8.1% of middle school students were smoking in 2004. More White and Hispanic students smoked cigarettes. That tells you how many kids get addicted to smoking and at such young ages, but what they don’t show is how many kids in elementary school smoke because of peer pressure from middle school students and high school. These are plenty of numbers to show you how smoking affects the younger ages. When kids see adults smoking they think it’s cool and thinks it’ll make them look cool so they are more likely to try it. These are some health effects of smoking; about half of all Americans who continue to smoke will die because of the habit. Each year about 440,000 people in the United States die from illnesses related to cigarette smoking. Cigarettes kill more Americans than alcohol, car accidents, suicide, AIDS, homicide, and illegal drugs combined. That alone should make you not want to smoke, but most cigarette companies hide those numbers. In other words, according to the Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Second Hand smoke is also a cause for deaths due to lung cancer. Secondhand smoke is involuntarily inhaled by nonsmokers, lingers in the air hours after cigarettes have been extinguished, and can cause, or intensify, a wide range of health effects, including cancer, respiratory infections, emphysema, and asthma. Also known as Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS),

secondhand smoke is a combination of the fumes given off by the burning end of a cigarette (side stream smoke) and the smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers (mainstream smoke); therefore it has twice as much nicotine and tar compared to the smoke that a smoker inhales. Classified as a "known human carcinogen" (cancer-causing agent), it contains hundreds of chemicals known to be toxic, including formaldehyde, benzene, chloride, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and countless other deadly chemicals Also, In a recent analysis, they evaluated the exposure–response relationship for cardiovascular mortality in relation to PM2.5 from active cigarette smoking, SHS, and ambient air pollution (Pope et al. 2009). The results suggested a relatively steep exposure–response function at very low levels of exposure and a flattening out of CVD risk at high exposure levels. Previous efforts to estimate the disease burden attributable to PM2.5 exposure have assumed that the adverse effects of PM2.5 on both cardiovascular and lung cancer mortality flatten out above 50 ug/m3 (Cohen et al 2004). I try to stay as far as possible from Second Hand, but it seem like you can never get away. I live around smokers all my life and I am scared to go to the doctor and he tells me you have lung cancer. I will be shocked an appalled, because I never smoke a Cigarette in a life. Also, According to NSCLC, people who quit smoking 10 years were more likely to have the advance stage of lung cancer. I you’ve recently started or second hand smoke was involved; you probably won’t have advance lung cancer. However, you may develop some awful symptoms or other relative diseases. Meanwhile, there was a study developed by World Health Organization in 1977. The study included 793,784 subjects. The entire subjects were smokers for about 25 years. The sad part about this study is that everyone died or had complication after 6 to 7 years in a follow-up. 3,194 people died from lung cancer, 11,706 died from IDH related issues, 19,290 from cardiovascular disease, and 22,201 people from cardiopulmonary disease (Sin et al. 2005; Speizer et al. 1989). As you can see, you may die from lung cancer, but other damage done to other organs will give out as well.

In summary, I decided to write my paper on lung cancer. I felt it was needed since I lost two loved ones who died from this disease. I’ve never smoke a cigarette but I’ve been around people who smoke. So, I go to my doctor to make sure I’m doing okay and nothing has developed. Also, Mold is another issue that comes to mind, when you speak about lung cancer. Mold is something that grows in your lungs and can cause cancer as well. A lot people stay in their houses for so long and developed respiratory issues from Mold (AIR Population). So, it really doesn’t matter if you smoke or not! Second hand smoke and Mold are deadly floaters.

References

Cohen AJ, Anderson HR, Ostro B, Pandey KD, Krzyzanowski M,
Künzli N, et al. 2004. Mortality impacts of urban air pollution. In: Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and
Regional Burden of Disease Due to Selected Major Risk
Factors, Vol 2 (Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJL,
Eds). Geneva: World Health Organization.
National Cancer Institute. 2001. Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and
Nicotine. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No.
13. NIH Pub. No. 02-5047 Bethesda, MD: National Institutes
Of Health.
Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Krewski D, Jerrett M, Shi Y, Calle E, et al. 2009. Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to airborne fine Particulate matter and cigarette smoke: shape of the exposure- Response relationship. Circulation 120:941–948.

Speizer FE, Fay ME, Dockery DW, Ferris BG Jr. 1989. Chronic
Obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in six U.S. cities.
Am Rev Respir Dis 140:S49–S55?

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2010.
How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and
Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report
Of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
And Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

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