Long Life

Topics: Water, Drinking water, Pakistan Pages: 15 (2203 words) Published: February 27, 2013
WaterAid in Pakistan

Water Quality Testing
November, 2010

This protocol and instructions are mandatory for all partner 0rganizations implementing water supply components with WaterAid funding

Table of Contents



Country Context
Current Situation/Issues in Pakistan

Policy on Water Quality

WaterAid’s principles & objectives
WAP Context
Objectives of the Policy


N ational
National Stakeholders


R esponsibilities


H igh
High Risk Contaminants

Microbiological Contaminants
Chemical Contaminants


Proposed Water Quality Standards


T esting
Testing Arrangements and Frequency of Testing

Arrangements and Resources
Frequency of Testing


T esting
Testing Methods, Equipment, and Financial Resources


Documentation, Reporting and Disseminating Test Results

10.0 Follow -up Actions




Country Context

Pakistan lies in southern Asia, bordering with India in the east, Afghanistan in the west and China in the north. The terrain consists of Indus plain in the east, mountains of Himalaya, Karakuram and Hidukush ranges in the north, hill regions (up to 4700 m) in the north-west and upland Baluchistan plateau in the west. The climate of the country is mostly arid to semi-arid with average rainfall varying from less than 125 mm in Baluchistan to in excess of 1000 mm in Islamabad, but becomes low again in northern mountains.

The Indus, the main river of Pakistan, has its source in the mountains of Karakuram range and flows south-words through the provinces of Punjab and Sindh to Arabian Sea. Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum are the major tributaries of Indus in Punjab. Relatively abundant water and fertile plain have encourages major proportion of the population to settle in the main cities of Karachi, Islamabad, Lahore. However, flooding along the Indus valley is a frequent problem. Agriculture forms major part of national economy. 27% of the land is arable and principal crops include cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, and maize. Most of the agriculture development is along the Indus plain. Irrigation is a major aspect of agriculture development, much being from canalfed river water. Tube-well irrigation is also very common in the Indus plain. Fertilizers and pesticides have widely been used in Indus plain. Industries have been developed in many urban centres. Most important of this is the textile industry. Tanneries are also abundant in towns of Kasur, Lahore as well as Karachi.

The geology of Pakistan is dominated by young (quaternary) sediments which outcrop over large parts of the Indus plain and Baluchistan basins and are often 100 meters thick. The Indus sediments are mainly alluvial and deltaic deposits, consisting mainly of fine-medium sand, silt and clay.

Figure: Map of Pakistan

1 .2.

Current Situation/Issues in Pakistan

Water Availability
Although Pakistan has adequate ground and surface water resources but rapid population growth, urbanization and un-planned water consumption is affecting both quantity as well as quality of water. This depletion of water resources and deteriorating water quality has resulted in increased waterborne diseases. Per capita availability of water which was 5000 cubic meter in 1951 has decreased to 1000 cubic meters and will further decrease to 660 by year 2025. Amongst the provinces, Punjab has the best rural water supply system where only 7% of the population has to depends on dug wells & river. In Sindh 24% of the rural population uses water from un-protected sources while the ratio of the rural population using dug wells and surface water in NWFP and Baluchistan is 46% & 72% respectively. Water Quality

A national water quality study carried out in 2001 by Pakistan Council for Research in...
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