London Docklands Case Study:
After World War II the population was in decline die to people moving out fro a quieter life. Unemployment was at 60% amongst adult males.
After the docks closed 10,000 people were put out of work
Before London’s docklands had been UK’s largest manufacturing area of 1970s. Lost 16% of population due to counter urbanisation.
Causes of the decline
1. COUNTER URBANISATON:
1. London experienced net out migration and this is known as counter urbanisation. 2. This happened due to:
Clearance of slums and bombed areas during world war II
The creation of new towns such as Stevenage only up to 50km out of London. These were designed for the over spill of London due to the slum clearance. Due to the introduction of London’s greenbelt in 1947, which restricted further development of suburban areas. People had to move further away, this protected London’s surrounding countryside. This resulted in villages and towns surrounding London grew rapidly. In these surrounding towns population grew very rapidly as towns and villages purely leap frogged the green belt and grew beyond it. Many of these people were commuters due to cheaper property and better environment.
2. DE- INDUSTRIALISATION
In 1980s primary (mining) and secondary (manufacturing) industries were more expensive in the UK than overseas. UK wages were higher than overseas therefore making British products more expensive. The growth in Asia’s cheaper goods lead to more imported goods. Due to this many mines and manufacturers closed during this time, this caused DE- INDUSTRIALISATION. This caused huge unemployment both in the East of London and the midlands. London being a major centre of light industry with 33% of labour force working in manufacturing although that has changed to 2010 with on 10%. To replace lost employment, Margaret Thatcher and the government planned changes to the UK economy to encourage a POST INDUSTRIAL economy. Directing investments towards: KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY: this developed high expertises in management and consultancy. Encouraging banks and the finance sector to grown to help with global investment. Other sectors also pushed were media, law and IT. TOURISM: this is the worlds fastest growing industry, due to cheaper air travel and increased car ownership. PROPERTY: cities planned to re brand their image from their past such as industrial heritage to attract people. Such as former ports, canals and old factories.
3. THE DOCKS CLOSE:
The final part of the Docks closed in 1981, these docks were the biggest in the UK until the mid 70’s with over 10,000 workers loading and unloading ships. Although things happened: Due to the increase in the size of ships, the water at the docks was not deep enough therefore a better site 20 miles down the river at Tibury was needed. The development in computers and container ships meant that less people were needed to load and unload the ships by hand this resulted in unemployment. Felixstowe, which is 70 miles from London, was a better site due to the cheaper land and deeper water. This developed into the biggest port in the UK and replaced the London Docklands, which was not suitable anymore. The closure of the London Docklands had many effects, including: Due to the closure over 12,000 jobs were lost between 1978 and 1983, causing an unemployment rate of over 60%. The docks itself was left derelict and in some parts of London this was so severe that regeneration was not an option due to the cost of this would be too high which meant that it was not attractive to investors. Due to the high unemployment the economic decline caused the population to decline as people migrated elsewhere to find jobs. In the east of London the population declined by 18.5%. Half of the remaining population worked in low paid manual occupations and many businesses closed due to this.
Changing the image of inner cities:
Due to high unemployment...
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