REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter reviews the literature and studies that are relevant to the presents study. Different views from different persons were considered in farming up the researchers’ point of viewers. Related Literatures
A variety of clinical pharmacy interventions have been assessed, but the body of evidence relating to any particular type of intervention is small. Cost-saving interventions comprise a small percentage of clinical pharmacy interventions, but they generated substantial savings. Clinical pharmacists provided added value by participating in multidisciplinary teams attending rounds. Clinical pharmacy interventions reduced preventable adverse drug events and prescribing errors, thereby yielding savings related to cost avoidance. Interventions relating to antibiotic therapy lowered costs of care without adversely affecting clinical outcomes. The results of cost–benefit analyses suggested that general clinical pharmacy interventions are associated with cost savings. Most economic evaluations of clinical pharmacy interventions suffered from a number of methodological limitations relating to the absence of a control group without clinical pharmacy interventions, limited scope of costs and outcomes, focus on direct health care costs only, exclusion of pharmacist employment cost, use of intermediate outcome measures, exclusion of health benefits, and absence of incremental cost analysis. Some avenues for designing future economic evaluations include the use of a control group, detailed descriptions of the interventions provided, evaluations conducted from a societal perspective, consideration of patients’ health benefits when assessing economic effect of interventions and hospital costs, and the inclusion of sensitivity and incremental analyses.
THE GENERICS PHARMACY (TGP) started out as small pharmaceutical company in 1949. Acknowledging the dire need for quality medicines but at affordable prices, the company focused on generic medicines to provide the Filipino with a more affordable alternative. In 2001, the company ventured into retail, starting with only a single outlet. As demand for its products grew, the company decided to bring their medicines more accessible to all the far reaches of the country through the FRANCHISING business model. The historic year was 2007, starting with twenty (20) outlets within Metro Manila. Now as The Generics Pharmacy (TGP), it revolutionized the entire pharmaceutical and retail industry with its bold and unusual path to growth. Who would think that a pharmacy carrying only pure generic drugs rapidly take off? After the initial struggles and birth pains, the healthcare landscape has embraced and accepted generic medicine as it has proven to be as effective and of high quality standards and yet, truly affordable to every Filipino. Now only on its 7th year in full pharmacy retail and franchising, TGP has dotted the entire archipelago with more than strong 1600+outlets, making healthcare accessible to every Juan. As expansion grew rapidly, so with the numerous awards and recognition TGP received from various prestigious retail, franchising, marketing, social entrepreneurship and management organizations. The most recent award, the GAWAD GENERIC SUMMIT is made even more valuable by the fact that it was conferred by our own Department of Health (DOH), in celebration of Philippines’ 25th Generic Summit celebrated last September 2013. This is solid proof that TGP is now well accepted and trusted as source of quality and affordable generic medicines. TGP is now the largest retail pharmacy chain in the country.
Mercury Drug was founded shortly after the liberation of Manila from the Japanese occupation. It all began from a bottle of sulfathiazole which was sold piece by piece or "tingi-tingi" in Bambang St., Sta. Cruz, Manila, where the first Mercury Drug store was eventually opened on March 1, 1945. From that modest...
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