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LM10 SSCI 111 Issues and Controversies about the Heroism of Dr

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LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

LEARNING MODULE TITLE
Issues and Controversies about the Heroism of Dr. Jose Rizal

LEARNING MODULE RATIONALE
This module is about the issues and controversies surrounding the heroism of Dr. Jose Rizal. It examines the various issues and controversies about the heroism of Rizal and his stature as the national hero of the Philippines. The module examines the arguments and perspectives from different camps that either support or question the heroism of Rizal.

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the module/lesson the student must be able to: Understand and develop a stand or conclusion on issues and controversies about the heroism of Dr. Jose Rizal
Discuss the context of the issues and controversies about Rizal Explain the relevance and significance of Jose Rizal at present Examine the evidence or proofs presented for and against Jose Rizal Make conclusion based on evidence on the issues about Jose Rizal Make a stand or conclusion on the issues and controversies about Jose Rizal after examining historical evidence

TEACHING STRATEGIES/LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Lecture
Open Forum
Group work/Brainstorming

RESOURCES/MATERIALS
Books and websites about the life, works and studies of Jose Rizal (See the References) Film: “Bayaning Third World”

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

1/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

LEARNING CONCEPT
Introduction
Most Filipinos venerate Dr. Jose Rizal as the country’s national hero. This is despite the fact that until this day, there is no law or legislation that recognizes any Filipino historical figure as national hero. Being a national hero, Rizal is elevated to a pedestal higher than other Filipino heroes who have also sacrificed their lives for the country. Fame and popularity are not the only prize of such recognition, for Jose Rizal is also the most ‘questioned’ hero of the Philippines. Along with Dr. Jose Rizal’s stature as the National Hero of the Philippines are issues and controversies that question and to some extent negate his heroism. The debate about this has not yet reached any resolution and still continues. At present, many Filipinos have an ambivalent or uncertain attitude towards Jose Rizal and his heroism.

The aim of the module is to revive the interest about the heroism of Rizal and for students to develop their own conclusion or judgment based on facts and evidence.

I. Issues and Controversies about the Heroism of Dr. Jose Rizal A. Why is Dr. Jose Rizal considered as the National Hero of the Philippines? Of the countless great men and women in our country’s history, Jose Rizal was considered and venerated as the national hero, thus becoming more special and valuable than other heroes. To have an clear understanding of this, it is helpful to read the executive summary of the SELECTION AND PROCLAMATION OF NATIONAL HEROES AND LAWS HONORING FILIPINO HISTORICAL FIGURES from the Reference and Research Bureau Legislative Research Service, House of Congress which could be accessed at http://www.ncca.gov.ph/aboutculture-and-arts/culture-profile/culture-profile-nationalhero.php . This document is prepared by the National Heroes committee which states the following:

No laws or any legislation has been issued or enacted which proclaims any Filipino historical figure as the national hero but there are laws enacted in order to honor the significant contributions of these heroes to nation-building

Jose Rizal was not explicitly proclaimed as national hero, but his position as the national hero is a tribute to the continued veneration and acclamation of the Filipinos. Andres Bonifacio is also given an implied recognition as the national hero aside from Jose Rizal. Heroes need not be recognized through legislation, but are still revered, appreciated and acclaimed for their contributions to Philippine history.

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

2/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

Criteria for National Heroes
1. Heroes are those who have a concept of nation and thereafter aspire and struggle for the nation’s freedom.
2. Heroes are those who define and contribute to a system or life of freedom and order for the nation. 3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and destiny of a nation. Additional criteria for Heroes

1. A hero is part of the people’s expression.
2. A hero thinks of the future, especially the future generations. 3. The choice of a hero involves not only the recounting of an episode or events in history, but of the entire process that made this particular person a hero.

Historical Figures Recommended as National Heroes:
a. Jose Rizal
b. Andres Bonifacio
c. Emilio Aguinaldo
d. Apolinario Mabini
e. Marcelo H. del Pilar
f. Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat
g. Juan Luna
h. Melchora Aquino
i. Gabriela Silang
Conclusion
Since the submission of the report/recommendations by the National Heroes Committee to then Secretary Ricardo T. Gloria of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports on November 22, 1995, no action has been taken. This was probably because this might trigger a flood of requests for proclamations. Another possibility is that the proclamations can trigger bitter debates involving historical controversies about the heroes.

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

3/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

B. Questions to Rizal’s Heroism
1. Did Rizal retract?
YES

NO
» Arguments against the retraction:
» Four documents surfaced which contained the
1. The retraction is a forgery
retraction of Jose Rizal a day before he was
- Analysis of the handwriting
executed.
- Different versions of the retraction documents
» The retraction states the following:
- Discrepancies in the texts
1. Rejection of masonry
- “confession” of the “forgerer”
2. Repudiation of his words, writings, publication
2. The existence of retraction is questionable
and conduct that were against the Catholic Church
- No member of the Rizal family has seen it
» This was a requirement for Jose Rizal and
- Rizal was not saved by the retraction
Josephine Bracken to be married.
- There is no certificate or any public
record of Rizal and Bracken’s marriage
(Jose Rizal’s retraction could be read at: http://joserizal.ph/rt02.html ) 2. Was Rizal an American-sponsored hero?
YES
» Argument Prof. Renato Constantino:
Rizal’s “pre-eminence among our heroes was partly
the result of American sponsorship”:
1. The Americans encouraged a Rizal cult
- Act No. 137: creation of Rizal Province
(formerly Morong)
- Act No. 243: erection of Rizal monument in
Luneta
- Act No. 346: Dec. 30 as day of observance
2. The Americans reduced the importance of other
heroes
- Rizal was selected because he is peace-loving
and never advocated independence and
revolution
- Aguinaldo: militant; Bonifacio: radical; Mabini:
unregenerate/uncompromising
Prepared by:

NO
» Arguments of Dr. Ambeth Ocampo
- Jose Rizal was already venerated long before the
Americans sponsored him
- Emilio Aguinaldo issued a declaration in Dec. 20,
1898 in which Dec 30 of every year is a day of
national mourning in honor of Dr. Jose Rizal and
other victims of the Philippine revolution
- Jose Rizal has anti-American sentiment
- “The Americans just built on the prevailing
sentiment of the people” towards Rizal. [They
used Rizal: anti-Spain, assimilist, reformist and
peace-loving stance to further their
colonial/imperialistic agenda]

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

4/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

3. Was Rizal anti-revolution?
YES
» Prof. Renato Constantino:
- twice: Rizal volunteered to serve Spain in Cuba
and the Dec. 15 Manifesto
» Other historians emphasized the reformist and
assimilist stance of Rizal as proof of being antirevolutionary.

NO
» Prof. Floro Quibuyen
- cited letters of Rizal explaining his ideas and
thoughts about revolution
- He also cited the latest testimony of Pio Valenzuela
in 1917 which Rizal gave ‘instructions’ for the
Katipunan and that Rizal was strongly supportive of
the revolution.
- In the Dec. 15 manifesto, Rizal neither professed
allegiance to Spain nor rejected the revolution. It
was suppressed by the Spanish authorities for the
fear that it might intensify the revolution.
-In his last poem, Rizal praised the revolutionaries;
it was used as an inspiration and sang in the battle
field
- many of Rizal’s family members joined the
Katipunan including Josephine Bracken

4. Was Rizal an ambivalent or fence sitter?
The conception of Jose Rizal as an ambivalent hero resulted from four contradicting testimonies of Pio Valenzuela (2 in 1896 while being a prisoner in Fort Santiago) and in 1914 and 1917. These testimonies are all about his conversation with Jose Rizal in Dapitan. The first two testimonies state that Rizal totally repudiated the revolution while in the other two; he claimed that Rizal did not repudiate the revolution and he had given instructions for the Katipunan to ensure the success of the rebellion. Some historians would say that Rizal was ambivalent, pointing to some of his works in which he rejected armed struggle as means for social transformation and his other works which express his support of the revolution. On the other hand, some historians argued that in order to answer whether or not Rizal was ambivalent, Jose Rizal must be read in proper context and perspective. They further argued that Jose Rizal was a product of his time and society and thus Rizal must be read according to the context of the 19 th century Philippines and in the perspective of the Filipinos during that time.

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

5/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

II. Is Rizal still relevant?
Jose Rizal is still relevant because the social problems or ‘ills’ that he had exposed, criticized and tried to solve still exist. Corruption, injustices, unqualified and/or incompetent government officials and poverty are among the perennial problems that plague the Philippines. The qualities of Jose Rizal are worth emulating. He serves as a role model and inspiration for Filipino youth to love and serve the Philippines and countrymen.

Studying Jose Rizal and the country’s history makes us aware of the ideals on which our nation was built upon. Studying the sacrifices of our ancestors for the country’s freedom and sovereignty develops nationalism and pride of our national identity.

Jose Rizal will always be part in the development of Philippine nationalism. Read the following articles that discuss the relevance of Jose Rizal at present: http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/215583/jose-rizal-remains-relevant-today%E2%80%94nhcp http://www.philstar.com/education-and-home/2014/01/30/1284531/dr.-jose-rizalsymbol-ideal-leadership-today http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/84395/youth-called-upon-to-follow-rizal-for-good-ofcountry

ILLUSTRATIONS/EXAMPLES/FORMULAS
Illustration 1: Dr. Jose Rizal’s monument in Luneta

Source:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/Rizal_Monument_at_Rizal_Park.jpg

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

6/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

REFERENCES
Ocampo, Ambeth R. 2000. Rizal Without the Overcoat. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing Inc. Constantino, Renato. (1970). Veneration without understanding. Dissent and counter-consciousness. [Quezon City, Philippines : Malaya Books

Quibuyen, Floro C. 1999. A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American hegemony and Philippine nationalism. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press
Quibuyen, F. (1997). Rizal and the Revolution. Philippine Studies, 45(2), 225-257. Retrieved December 07, 2014, from http://www.philippinestudies.net
Internet sources
http://joserizal.nhcp.gov.ph/Writings/portal-rizalswritings.htm http://joserizal.info
http://joserizal.nhcp.gov.ph/Reflections/Veneration/veneration_text.htm http://www.philippinestudies.net
http://www.academia.edu/1187336/By_Pen_and_by_Sword_Reformist-Revolutionary_Debate_over_Dr._Jose_Rizal http://www.academia.edu/966595/Maikling_Pagsusuri_ng_Rebolusyon_ni_Rizal http://kahimyang.info/kauswagan/articles/1667/did-rizal-favor-the-revolution-a-criticism-of-the-valenzuelamemoirs http://j-rizal.blogspot.com/2007/04/dr-pio-valenzuelas-conference-with-dr.html

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

7/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

SELF-TEST
PART 1. DIRECTION: Choose the letter of the correct answer. (10 points) promote 1. Why is Rizal dubbed as an ‘ambivalent’ hero?
A. He was a mason and anti-Catholic church.
B. He allegedly retracted his works and ideas.
C. He never made a clear stand in the revolution.
D. He was venerated as Philippine national hero yet there is no legal basis for it. 2. Is Jose Rizal an American-sponsored hero?
A. No. He was already a hero because he died fighting for freedom of the Philippines. B. No. He was venerated as a hero even before the Americans came. C. Yes. Jose Rizal was chosen by the Americans because he is anti-revolutionary. D. Yes. The Americans influenced the Filipinos to venerate him as national hero. 3. What is Jose Rizal’s most significant legacy to the Filipinos at present time? A. His literary works

B. His achievements
C. His idea of non-violent revolution
D. His ideas on patriotism and nationalism
4. According to the National Heroes Committee, who is given an implied recognition as the Philippines’ national hero aside from Dr. Jose Rizal?
A. Emilio Aguinaldo
B. Andres Bonifacio
C. Apolinario Mabini
D. Benigno ‘Ninoy’ Aquino
5. Which statement is TRUE about the selection of the Philippine national hero? I. Heroes are proclaimed based on their significant contributions in nation-building. II. The position of national hero is based from people’s continued veneration of the person. III. The different time periods in the country’s history must be considered in the selection of national hero. A. Statement I only

B. Statement II only

Prepared by:

C. Statement III
D. All statements are true.

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

8/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

6. What are the information stated in the alleged retraction of Dr. Jose Rizal? I. Jose Rizal’s rejection of masonry
II. Jose Rizal’s repudiation of his works
IV. Jose Rizal’s disapproval of the revolution
III. Jose Rizal’s marriage to Josephine Bracken
A. I and II

B. I and III

C. II and III

D. III and IV

7. How did the Americans promote Jose Rizal as the country’s national hero according to Renato Constantino? I. The Americans constructed Rizal monuments all over the country. II. The Americans implemented laws that made Rizal more popular to the Filipinos. III. The Americans reduced the popularity of other Filipino historical figures to promote Jose Rizal. IV. The Americans set the criteria for the selection of Philippine national hero which favored Jose Rizal. A. I and II

B. I and III

C. II and III

D. III and IV

8. Which proves that Filipinos already venerated Jose Rizal as national hero before the Americans recognized him as such?
A. The Dec. 20 1898 proclamation issued by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo B. The second verse of the Mi Ultimo Adios which praises the revolutionaries C. The testimonies of Pio Valenzuela about his conversation with Jose Rizal in Dapitan D. The Dec. 15. 1896 manifesto of Jose Rizal convincing the Filipinos to stop the rebellion 9. What could be inferred from the letter of Jose Rizal to Ferdinand Blumentritt in January 26, 1887 which states: “A peaceful struggle shall always be a dream, for Spain will never learn the lesson of her South American colonies”?

A. Jose Rizal’s anti-revolutionary stance
B. Jose Rizal’s ambivalence towards revolution
C. Jose Rizal’s idea that revolution against Spain is inevitable D. Jose Rizal’s ideas about the reforms needed by the Philippines 10. Which proves Jose Rizal’s anti-revolution stance?
A. His retraction
B. The Mi Ultimo Adios
C. His Dec. 15, 1896 manifesto
D. The testimonies of Pio Valenzuela in 1914 and 1917

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

9/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

11. Which document invoked the perception that Rizal was ambivalent or fence-setter? A. His retraction
B. His poem Mi Retiro
C. His Dec. 15, 1896 manifesto
D. The testimonies of Pio Valenzuela
12. How could Filipinos of today attain a better understanding of Dr. Jose Rizal? A. Jose Rizal must be read based on his accomplishments.
B. Jose Rizal must be read based on his experiences and actions. C. Jose Rizal must be read in the context of the time and society he belongs to. D. Jose Rizal must be read according to his ideas contained by his literary works. 13. Jose Rizal’s alleged retraction was a requirement for him to _________. A. appeal his death sentence

B. marry Josephine Bracken
C. apologize to the Spanish friars
D. deny his involvement in the revolution
14. Which is a proof that Jose Rizal was not anti-revolution according to Dr. Floro Quibuyen? A. The story of the El Filibusterismo
B. The alleged retraction of Jose Rizal
C. Many of Rizal’s family were members of Katipunan.
D. The testimonies of Pio Valenzuela while he was detained in Fort Santiago 15. Which are NOT stated in Jose Rizal’s December 15, 1896 manifesto to some Filipinos? I. Jose Rizal condemned the rebellion.

II. Jose Rizal professed allegiance to Spain.
III. Jose Rizal denied his involvement in the rebellion.
IV. Jose Rizal maintained that the Philippines must remain a colony of Spain. A. I and II

B. I and III

C. II and III

16. Which act was issued by the Americans that created the Rizal province? A. Act 137
B. Act 243
C. Act 346

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

D. II and IV

D. Act 412

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

10/5

LEARNING MODULE
Life and Works of Jose Rizal

ComputerCollege
Effectivity:
SY 2014-2015

(SSCI 111)

Document Reference:
QR-AAD-013

Revision No: 00

Issue No: 01

Date Issued:

17. All of the following qualities of Dr. Jose Rizal were used by the Americans to promote him as the national hero of the Philippines except __________ .
A. Assimilist
C. Uncompromising
B. Reformist
D. Peace-loving
18. All of the following Filipino historical figures are in the list of candidates for Philippine national hero except _________.
A. Juan Luna
C. Melchora Aquino
B. Emilio Jacinto
D. Gabriela Silang
19. Which proves that the study of Dr. Jose Rizal is still relevant? A. Jose Rizal could be a role model for Filipinos especially the youth. B. His ideas and philosophies which promote nationalism and patriotism C. Many of the present social problems in the Philippines are similar to those he criticized. D. All of these

20. Which is NOT a part of the criteria for the selection of Philippine national hero? A. Those who have a concept of nation
C. Those who have contributed to the nations’ destiny
B. Those who have contributed to a system of life or freedom D. Those who are venerated and acclaimed by the Filipino people

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
GRINGO M. CORPUZ

Approved by:

Dr. RIVIERA G. GUIYAB

This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office.

ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D.

11/5

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