livelihood system among koyas
In the phase of globalization the question of livelihood has captured all the points of discussion. Various people have defined livelihood differently. Chambers and Conway (1992) define “A livelihood comprises the abilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities to the next generation; and contribute net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels in the long and in the short term.”
In present days the issue of livelihood has become a topic of concern in the context of tribal communities. Since centuries the tribal communities have been living in and around the forests, practicing hunting and gathering activities, fishing and shifting cultivation have faced difficulties in their survival. Traditionally they depend on forest resources for their livelihoods. Their dependence on forest was not merely for livelihood but also for their cultural requirement. For these people, forests are important source of livelihood and means of survival (Saxena, 1999). Though, farming was there it was not much prominent. Their economy was subsistence in nature. Moreover, a number of small tribal groups are completely dependent on the forest for their livelihood. Fernandes (1984) argues or that the destruction of forests over the past few decades has deprived tribes of their livelihood, particularly source of food. It has also resulted in their impoverishment, indebtedness and in many cases land alienation and even bondage.
The concept of livelihoods and livelihood analysis emerged in the mid-nineties- closely associated with poverty reduction strategies. Livelihood of the poor can never be understand in any track logic be it economic, social, technical, cultural or political.
The livelihood systems are made up very