Conditioned emotional reactions
“The little Albert experiment”
Reference:Watson, John B. & Rayner, Rosalie. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14. In this journal article, Jhon B. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner performed one of the most influential experiments in psychology to prove that emotional responses could be conditioned or learned vs Sigmund Freud’s theories of sexual and life-preservation to be solely the shaping of behavior and personality distortion from child to adult life. In the article, Watson and Rayner go on to prove that in fact there is many more innate instincts than those claimed by Freud. Of course backed by many other experiments performed in other occasions, but in this case alone, Watson and Rayner did prove that conditioned stimuli and environmental factors do in fact produce a learned emotional response of fear or rage in behavior. The experiment consisted of a healthy baby “Little Albert” that had been raised in the hospital environment since birth because his mother was a nurse, loud noise produced by a steel rod and a hammer, a white rat, a rabbit, a dog, a monkey, masks with and without hair, cotton wool, a burning newspaper and a few other things. Watson and Rayner first began the experiment by testing Albert’s emotional wellness at the age of eight months. Seeing that Albert was in stable condition they began with introducing each stimuli alone, which began with the loud noise produced by the hammer hitting the steel bar over little Albert’s head. With each attempt, his reaction went from mild to extreme causing little Albert to go from being startled to ending up in emotional outbreak and tears. After more tests, at age of nine months, Albert was introduced to the rest of the stimuli which were the animals and other objects. Not showing any signs of fear or rage from Albert, Watson then proceeded to discover if pairing the loud noise with the...
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