Literature Reviw

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Literature Review

The definition of mass media was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspaper and magazines. A general idea of mass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication (Lane, 2007).

More specific, mass media is a term used to denote a section of media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state (Peterson, Jensen and Rivers, 1965).

Mass media are comprised of eight mass media industries, namely books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the Internet (Lane, 2007).

Studying the process of mass media is of equal importance, which provides better understanding of media’s effect on consumers. Peterson, Jensen and Rivers also suggested that mass media are selective, because the media tend to select their audiences, and audiences likewise select among the media. Nearly every medium has its target audience. McLuhan (1964) uses the term “the medium is the message” as a means of explaining how the distribution of message can often be more important than the message itself. It is through the persuasiveness of media such as television, radio and print media that reach the target audience.

In psychology, communication theory and sociology, media influence or media effects refers to the theories about the ways the mass media affect how their audiences think and behave. According to Peterson, Jensen and Rivers, media are much more likely to modify attitudes than to change them. The media are not only powerful rein forcers, but they can also slightly redirect existing behavior pattern or attitude into new areas.

Consumer behavior is the most apparent behavior that mass media impose great effects on. Since the mass media are directly or indirectly supported by companies, most information and entertainment we receive from television, radio, newspaper, and magazines is paid for by people who want to sell

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