literature review of Women at workequality versus inequality: barriers for advancing

Topics: Gender, Management, Discrimination Pages: 30 (8373 words) Published: September 20, 2013
This article was downloaded by: [La Trobe University]
On: 19 September 2013, At: 02:53
Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

The International Journal of Human
Resource Management
Publication details, including instructions for authors and
subscription information:

Women at workequality versus
inequality: barriers for advancing in the


M. P. Michailidis , R. N. Morphitou & I. Theophylatou



Management & MIS Department, Business School, University of
Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus

Department of Marketing, Business School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus

Medical School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus
Published online: 09 Mar 2012.

To cite this article: M. P. Michailidis , R. N. Morphitou & I. Theophylatou (2012) Women at workequality versus inequality: barriers for advancing in the workplace, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23:20, 4231-4245, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2012.665071 To link to this article:

Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content.

This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &

Downloaded by [La Trobe University] at 02:53 19 September 2013

Conditions of access and use can be found at

The International Journal of Human Resource Management,
Vol. 23, No. 20, November 2012, 4231–4245

Women at workequality versus inequality: barriers for advancing in the workplace
M.P. Michailidisa*, R.N. Morphitoub and I. Theophylatouc

Downloaded by [La Trobe University] at 02:53 19 September 2013

Management & MIS Department, Business School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus; b
Department of Marketing, Business School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus; c
Medical School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus
This study aimed at identifying the factors that working women in Cyprus are faced with which lead to experience discrimination, examining possible barriers that affect women’s advancement and identifying organizational practices that assist them in achieving work– life balance. The data were collected by the distribution of a questionnaire, which was on a voluntary, anonymous and confidential basis and targeted women of four different occupational levels. Several barriers were identified, preventing them from advancement such as stereotypes, conflicting work and family obligations, lack of women role models and low levels of self-confidence. This research enhances women’s awareness of the existence of gender discrimination at work and the barriers in their career advancement. It highlights the creation of company programs such as mentoring programs, refresher...

References: Apospori, E., Nikandrou, I., and Panayotopoulou, L. (2006), ‘Mentoring and Women’s Career
Advancement in Greece,’ Human Resource Development International, 9, 4, 509– 527.
Chater, K., and Gaster, R. (1995), The Equality Myth, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Clutterbuck, D. (2003), Managing Work– Life Balance, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel
and Development.
Dimakis, Y., Krambia-Kapardi, M., and Savva, M. (2006), Women in the Modern Business
Environment: Challenges and Opportunities, Cyprus: PriceWaterHouseCoopers.
Intercollege’s Research Center/Cyprus Center for European and International Affairs (2007),
The Free Time of Young People in Cyprus and their Attitudes on Important Socio-Economic
Joshi, H., and Paci, P. (1998), Unequal Pay for Women and Men, Cambridge: MIT Press.
Krambia-Kapardi, M. (2006), A Survey of Women in the Modern Business Environment, Challenges
and Opportunities, Cyprus: PriceWaterHouse Coopers.
Nichols, N. (1994), ‘Whatever Happened to Rosie the Riveter?’ in Reach for the Top: Women and
the Changing Facts of Work Life, ed
Rhode, D. (1997), Speaking of Sex: The Denial of Gender Inequality, London: Harvard University
Rhode, D. (2003), The Difference “Difference” Makes: Women and Leadership, Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press.
Swiss, D. (1996), Women Breaking Through: Overcoming the Final 10 Obstacles at Work,
Princeton, NJ: Peterson’s/Pacesetter Books.
Vinnicombe, S., and Colwill, N., (1995), The Essence of Women in Management, London and
New York: Prentice Hall.
Wirth, L. (2001), Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management (1st ed.), Geneva:
International Labour Organization.
Review, November– December. (accessed 16 September 2007).
Allison, E. (2007), ‘Does Networking Work for Women?’ Canadian HR Reporter, 20, 2, January,
39, (accessed 9 November 2007).
Atwater, L., and van Fleet, D. (1997), ‘Another Ceiling? Can Males Compete for Traditionally
Female Jobs?’ Journal of Management, 23, 5, September/October, 603– 626, http://findarticles.
com (accessed 18 July 2007).
Bartram, S. (2005), ‘What is Wrong with Current Approaches to Management Development in
Relation to Women in Management Roles?’ Women in Management Review, 20, 1, 107–116, (accessed 16 September 2007).
Catalyst (2002), Women in Leadership: A European Business Imperative,
(accessed 11 September 2007).
Childress, B. (2010), Glass Ceiling, Reference for Business (2nd ed.), http://www.
Eagly, A., and Carli, L. (2007), ‘Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership,’ Harvard Business
Review, September, 2 – 11, (accessed 16 September 2007).
Forret, M., and Dougherty, T. (2004), ‘Networking Behaviors and Career Outcomes: Differences for
Men and Women?’ Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 3, May, 419– 437, http://proquest. (accessed 16 September 2007).
Gladen, N. (2007), Strategies for Work Balance, Suite 101,
strategies-for-work-life-balance-a20158 (accessed 14 December 2010).
Hymowitz, C. (2005), ‘Women Internalize Stereotypes of Themselves as Weaker Leaders,’ The Wall
Street Journal Online, October, (accessed 12 July 2007).
Its Time for Working Women to Earn Equal Pay (2007), ‘AFL CIO,’
jobseconomy/women/equalpay/ (accessed 14 December 2010).
Mihail, D. (2006), ‘Gender-Based Stereotypes in the Workplace: The Case of Greece,’
Equal Opportunities International, 25, 5, 373 – 388, (accessed
5 September 2007).
Parasuraman, S., and Simmers, C. (2001), ‘Type of Employment, Work –Family Conflict and
Well-Being: A Comparative,’ Study Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 5, August,
551– 568, (accessed 16 September 2007).
Polachek, S., and Xiang, J. (2006), ‘The Gender Pay Gap: A Gross Country Analysis,’ (Unpublished
paper), SUNY-Binghamton, (accessed 20 March 2007).
Sallop, L., and Kirby, S. (2007), ‘The Role of Gender and Work Experience on Career and
Workforce Diversity Expectations,’ Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 8, 2,
January, 122–140, (accessed 16 September 2007).
Sarri, K., and Trihopoulos, A. (2005), ‘Female Entrepreneurs’ Personal Characteristics and
Motivation: A Review of the Greek Situation,’ Women in Management Review, 20, 1, 24 –36, (accessed 20 September 2007).
Schein, V., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T., and Liu, J. (1996), ‘Think Manager-Think Male: A Global
Phenomenon?’ Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 1, January, 33 –41, http://proquest.umi.
com (accessed 16 September 2007).
Singh, V., Vinnicombe, S., and James, K. (2006), ‘Constructing a Professional Identity: How Young
Female Managers Use Role Models,’ Women in Management Review, 21, 1, 67 – 81, http:// (accessed 16 September 2007).
Thompson, S. (2010), ‘Most Executives Believe that Workplace Inequality is Behind Men,’
MostStudyShows.htm (accessed 14 December 2010).
Toussiant, J. (2010), ‘The Glass Ceiling,’ Feminism and Women’s Studies, http://feminism.eserver.
org/the-glass-ceiling.txt (accessed 14 December 2010).
Wallace, O. (2010), ‘What is the Glass Ceiling,’ Wisegeek, (accessed 14 December 2010).
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Literature Review on Employability of Women Essay
  • Women Inequality Essay
  • Essay on Women Inequalities
  • Essay about Barriers to Women
  • Inequality of women in Nigeria Essay
  • Essay on Film Review of G. I. Jane: Gender Inequality and Women in the Military
  • Essay on Literature Review
  • Literature Review Research Paper

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free