Literature Review of Electric Vehicle Technology
In this paper, structure of electric vehicles is initially reviewed. Then electric vehicles propulsion system which consists of energy storage system, power electronic system and electric motor is reviewed in detail. Besides, performance of electric vehicles and advantages and disadvantages of this technology are also discussed. Key words: propulsion system, battery, converter/inverter, motor, battery. INTRODUCTION
The review is finished through searching various scholarly articles, books, dissertations, conference proceedings which are relevant to electric vehicle technology. From Automotive Power Generation and Control, the history and developments of electric vehicle technology has been reviewed. ELECTRIC AND ELECTRIC HYBRID VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY: A SURVEY interpreted the basic structure of electric vehicles, which consists of battery, converter, motor, changeable or fixed gear and differential gear. The critical segment of electric vehicle technology is reviewed from Present Status and Future Trends in Electric Vehicle Propulsion Technologies. Moreover, performance of electric vehicles is also reviewed from Automotive Electrical Systems-the Power Electronics Market of The Future and Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Change Ahead. At last, the paper is also discussed advantages and disadvantages of electric vehicle technology by searching some scholar journals and websites. In addition, the paper also used other articles, books, dissertations about electric vehicle technology to assist reviewing the above areas. MAIN SECTION
DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
Electric vehicle technology has been around since the late 1800s. Electric vehicles were very poplar and a number of EVs were sold until about 1918. Once the EV technology declined due to gasoline prices falling, but the technology was resumed by General Motors (GM) because of environmental concerns in 1980s. Afterwards, this technology was further improved in mid-90s which was commercialized by GM as EV1 vehicle. During 1990s, other automotive companies were also developing EVs. For example, Toyota developed a pure electric vehicle called RAV4 in 1996. However, with the announcement of development of Prius hybrid vehicle by Toyota in 1997, the focus of electric technology has again declined. In 2003, Tesla Motors announced the development of pure EVs. One of them is The Tesla Roadster, which is a battery EV produced by the company in California between 2008 and 2012. The Roadster was the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production all-electric to travel more than 200 miles per charge. In the last ten years, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles attracted interest in North American and some other countries. GM, Toyota and Ford and other auto makers are planning to commercialize plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the very near future. STRUCTURE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Basically, the simplest segments of electric vehicles are battery (1), converter (2), motor (3), changeable or fixed gear (4) and differential gear (5) (figure 1). Besides, two (or four) motors propulsion is also possible because the torque splitting with assistance the differential gear (figure 2). The two motors are placed in the wheel hubs. However, the kind of electric vehicle needs a separate converter. The advantage of a wheel hub motorization realise a four wheel drive system mainly for buses which are designed as low floors.
Fig. 1 One motor drive for electric vehicle
Fig. 2 Two or four motor drive for electric vehicles
ELECTRIC VEHICLES PROPULSION SYSTEM
In the electric vehicle technology, the critical system is propulsion system, which provides the tractive effort to propel a vehicle. The propulsion system consists of an energy storage system, the power converter/inverter, and the propulsion motor and associated controllers, which can be shown...
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