Literature Review

Topics: Instructional design, Instructional theory, Educational technology Pages: 7 (2070 words) Published: February 16, 2013
Literature Review: Designing Effective Instruction (4th Ed.) by Gary R. Morrison, Steven M. Ross, & Jerrold E. Kemp List of Exhibits

1.2Instructional Design
1.3Summary of Review
1.4Journal Article Critique


According to Grubb & Cox (2005) there are four critical elements that influence the learning environment. These elements are students’ needs, instructor approach, course content, and institutional setting. These four elements are needed in order to help students adapt and learn course material. By knowing the students’ academic and behavioral needs will help the instructor to know what teaching method to use. The assessment scores of a student also help organize the course content and the institutional setting. All four of those elements will help the academic committee construct developmental activities to foster the students' need. Without some mechanism to coordinate all developmental courses and activities, there is no reason to think that developmental curricula and related activities will be aligned (Grubb & Cox, 2005). Collaborate work with the institution, student, and other outside learning support will help facilitate a productive pedagogical alignment in the developmental classroom. This will also help instructors design effective instruction.

Instructional designers often use instructional design as a process, instructional design as a discipline, instructional design as a science, instructional design as reality, instructional system, instructional technology, and instructional development systems as a method for developing instruction. In the Instructional Design as a Process Instructional Design is described as the philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Instructional design, also known as instructional systems design, is the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction. Instructional design is a process that we follow when we develop a course. Another design used is Instructional technology, the use of a variety of teaching tools to improve student learning. Individuals usually think of computers and computer software when they think of instructional technology, but instructional technologies are not limited to computers in the classroom. Instructional technology describes all tools that are used for teaching and learning such as: cameras, CD players, PDA's, GPS devices, computer-based probes, calculators and electronic tools we have yet to discover. Students and teachers use computer software and Internet resources to locate, process, and present information, learn and assess their skills (School District U-46, 2011).

The main purpose of this review is designing effective instruction. The key question that the author is addressing is: What is the best way to teach a fact, a concept, a rule, a procedure, an interpersonal skill, or an attitude? How can I make the instruction meaningful?

How can I teach an objective that focuses on interpersonal skills? What is the best way to present the contents so that each learner will master the objectives? The most important information in this review is how instructional strategies begin with determining the content and performance type of each objective using the content-performance matrix. This helps the designer identify how the learner is to perform the objective introduced in the objective and the content the learner must master. The main inferences/conclusion in the review is how our primary goal is to design effective and efficient instruction that produces reliable results each time it is presented to the learner. The key concept we need to understand in the review Decision on the design of the instructions are made at two levels. The first decision is the delivery strategy and the second decision is the instructional strategy. The main assumption underlying the author’s thinking is designing the instructional strategies is...

References: Dick, Walter, Lou Carey, and James O. Carey. 2005. The Systematic Design of
Instruction (6th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. pp. 1–12. ISBN 0205412742.
Grubb, N.W. & Cox, R.D. (2005). Pedagogical Alignment and Curricular Consistency:
The Challenges for Developmental Education. NEW DIRECTIONS FOR
COMMUNITY COLLEGES , no.129, Spring 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kowch, E. (2003). REVIEW ESSAY: Designing Effective Instruction (4th Ed.) by Gary R. Morrison, Steven M. Ross, & Jerrold E. Kemp. Retrieved from International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, Volume 7 2003 from
School District U-46. 2011. Instructional Technology. Retrieved
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