Lipids

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Lipids
Lipids don’t dissolve in water contains mostly C,H,O (lower ratio of oxygen than do carbohydrates Types: Triglycerides, Waxes, Phospholipids, Sterols Triglycerides: contain glycerol molecule with three fatty acids attached, glycerol forms backbone different triglycerides are formed by various fatty acids that attach. Types of triglycerides: Saturated Fat, Unsaturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, and Polyunsaturated Fat Saturated Fat: all carbons are saturated with hydrogens there are no double bonds in fatty acids, molecules lay flat and tight with each other solid at room temp, most animal fat are saturated Unsaturated Fat: one or more of the fatty acids contain a carbon to carbon double bond= some hydrogens are not present. The double bond cause the fatty acid to bend=molecules not pack tightly together, liquid at room temp Monounsaturated Fat: only one double bond exist Polyunsaturated fat: more than one double bond exist in a fatty acid
Trans Fat: unsaturated fats healthier in diet, but peop prefer fats to be solid, invented solid unsaturated fats by: hydrogenation.
Hydrogenation can form Trans fat. Cis and Trans describe normal and “flipped” formation of hydrogen on a fatty acid. Cis is to have hydrogens on the same side of a double bond ( normal in nature). Trans is when the hydrogen flip opposite from each other (not normal)
Cis and Trans: b/c trans not normal body can’t process the fatty acid therefore trans fat are associated with cancer and heart disease.
Phospholipids: have glycerol backbone with only two fatty acids attached. In place of the third fatty acid is a phophate and a group containing nitrogen( typically choline, choline part is water soluble, while the fatty acid part is fat soluble. Phospholipids: make cell membranes, used in emulsifying agents including lecithin and bile.
Sterols: characterized by their ring structure. Ex: cholesterol= makes cell membranes and hormones. The liver manufactures

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