Linguistics 123 Reiko Kataoka
Midterm Study Tips
For our midterm exam, it is STRONGLY recommended that you study the lecture notes and video notes thoroughly, as most of the questions will be taken from these notes. The exam will contain 53 multiple choice questions, each worth 0.5 point for a possible total of 26.5 points towards your total point accumulation. Since the final exam is officially worth 25% of your grade, you have the chance to earn 1.5% of extra credit. The 53 questions will be based on the following materials: 48 Qs
from Note 1 (Introduction to Animal Communication) through Note 9 (Evolution of Human Language).
from the videos
Signals and Songs
Acoustics (Notes 2 & 3)
1) Are sound waves in air longitudinal or transverse waves? Longitudinal
longitudinal waves are simple and periodic can equate frequency (F) transverse waves are complex and aperiodic fundamental frequency (F0)
2) What is the approximate speed of sound in air (that we use in this class)? 350 m/s
3) What is the frequency of the simple sound wave above? F= 1/t t= time / # of cycles
4) What representation of sound is illustrated above? Waveform
(Another way of asking the same question: How the above representation of sound called?)
5) What is plotted on the
axis on the figure above?
6) What is the fundamental frequency (F0) of the complex sound wave above? .03 / 3 = .01 1/.01 + 100Hz
7) Intensity of a sound is the physical basis of perceived ____ loudness
____ of that sound.
(Fill in the blank.)
8) F0 of a complex sound is the physical basis of perceived _____ perceived pitch
that sound. (Fill in the blank.)
9) What are the three physical properties that are shown in sound spectrograms? Intensity, frequency, and time
10) Name two cues that humans use for localizing a sound source. location perception, interaural time difference (left or right ear) interaural intensity difference, softer sound hits second ear
11) Study the above figure, and make sure you can name: nasal cavity
larynx, trachea, bronchus,
Linguistics 123 Reiko Kataoka
12) Study the above figure, and make sure you can name: tympanic membrane, ossicles
Introduction (Note 1)
13) According to E.O. Wilson, all forms of communication are guaranteed to be adaptive to both a sender and a receiver of a signal. True or False?
14) Give one example of the case where communication is adaptive only to the signaler.
15) Give one example of visual signals and of auditory signals.
16) Name four advantages of signaling by sound (over visual signal, olfactory signal, etc.) that we discussed in class.
17) Who is Nikolaas Tinbergen?
18) What are Tinbergen’s
classes of explanation/questions of animal behavior? Linguistics 123 Reiko Kataoka
19) Which question is addressed when one studies how a behavior of one species of animal compares with similar behavior in related species? phylogeny
20) Which question is addressed when one studies how a behavior affects an animal’s chances of survival and reproduction?
21) Which question is addressed when one studies how a behavior develops in a maturing individual, and what early experiences are necessary for the behavior? ontogeny
22) Wings of butterflies, birds, and bats are examples of homologous traits; that is, these traits evolved in a single evolutionally ancestor who was common to all species. True or False?
Frog Advertisement Calls (Note 4) ...
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