http://188.8.131.52/zonghe/book/141-%E8%AF%AD%E8%A8%80%E5%AD%A6%E5%AF%BC%E8%AE%BA-%E5%90%89%E6%9E%97%E5%A4%A7%E5%AD%A6%E5%87%BA%E7%89%88%E7%A4%BE-%E9%99%88%E6%9E%97%E5%8D%8E/unit_1.htm https://sites.google.com/a/sheffield.ac.uk/all-about-linguistics/what-is-linguistics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistics#Branches_and_fields Linguistics is a large field, or set of fields, involving the scientific study of language. At the interface between the sciences and humanities, linguistics is a battleground for anthropologists, philosophers, philologists, poets, theologians, psychologists, biologists, and neurologists, all of whom seek to describe language and how it works from their own perspective. The ever-receding and highly ambitious goal is a theory of how all aspects of language work. Linguistics has many sub-fields. This includes comparative linguistics (which compares languages to each other), historical linguistics (history of language), and applied linguistics (putting linguistic theories to practical use). As a whole, linguistics concerns itself with three major problems: how we learn languages, how languages vary, and what is universal to language. Serious progress has been made on these questions during the 20th century, but there is still much more to investigate. Language is probably the most complex form of human behavior http://people.du.ac.in/~pkdas/TYPO/Intro.pdf
Typology investigates different structural types in the world’s languages. It determines where languages diverge from one another, and where they share properties which are common or potentially universal. The classification of languages into groups. A long linguistic tradition has been concerned with this in terms of historical roots, seeking common origins between languages. Today, typologists are more concerned with formal similarities and differences. For example, it is possible to characterize world languages according to where in the sentence the verb is typically placed; there...
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