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Linear Model of Communication

By MeghBalika1 Mar 04, 2013 1249 Words
Linear Model of Communication

It is a one way model to communicate with others. It consists of the sender encoding a message and channeling it to the receiver in the presence of noise. Draw backs – the linear model assumes that there is a clear cut beginning and end to communication. It also displays no feedback from the receiver. • For example; a letter, email, text message, lecture. There are two main linear model which are used to explain the human communication process. They are ... ... ... • Shannon and Weaver Model (1949)

The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise. The noise could also mean the absence of signal. • Berlo’s SMCR Model (1960)

In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver’s linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other scholars.

Shannon – Weaver Model

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916- February 24,2001) was an American mathematician, electronic engineer and cryptographer.He is known as “the father of information theory”. He was a student of Michigan University. He was a graduate in both engineering and mathematics. He worked in Bell laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institute for Advanced Studies.He got IEEE Medal of Honor, Kyoto Prize, Harvey Prize awards. [pic] Warren Weaver (July 17, 1894- Nov 24, 1978) was an American Scientist, Mathematician and Science administrator.He is widely recognized as one of the pioneers of machine translator and as important figure in creating support for science in US. He was a student of University of Wisconsin- Madison. Introduction:

Shannon- Weaver model is mother of all model in communication. The theory based on how a concept goes to a place from another. It is also known as mathematical theory of communication. Shannon published “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” article in two parts in the July and October numbers of the “Bell System Technical Journal” in 1949. The book co-authored with Weaver “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” reprints Shannon’s article. Later Weaver explained the model and popularized it.


C = W log2(1+S/N) where,
C – Channel capacity
W – Bandwith
S – Signal level
N – Noise power

This model is specially designed to develop the effective communication between sender and receiver. Also they find factors which affecting the communication process called “Noise”. At first the model was developed to improve the Technical communication. Later it’s widely applied in the field of Communication. Communication model:

The process of Shannon- Weaver model is as below ... ... ... [pic]Some key points of this model are given below ... ... ... • Information source chooses desired message among a set of possible messages which can be mixture of any form of written or spoken, image or sound. • Transmitter changes the message into the signal, also known as encoder. • Message is the thing which is sent and received and all communication is about. • Channel is the path that message passes through from the transmitter to the receiver. • Receiver is the reverse transmitter which changes the signal back into the message, also known as decoder. • Destination is the target place of the transmitted message. • Noise is any unwanted additions to the transmitted signal which cause distortion or error in transmission. [pic]

Shannon Weaver model of communication

There are eight (08) requirments of Shannon- Weaver model. They are ... ... ...

• Source
• Encoder
• Message
• Channel
• Decoder
• Reciever
• Noise
• Feedback
Mr. Khan made call to his assistant “come here I want to see you”.  During his call, noise appeared (transmission error) and his assistant received “I want” only. Again Assistant asked Thomson (feedback) “what do you want Mr. Khan?”. Sender       :   Mr. Khan

Encoder     :   Telephone (Mr. Khan)
Channel     :   Cable
Noise          :   Distraction in voice
Reception  :   Telephone (Assistant)
Receiver     :   Assistant.
Due to transmission error or noise, Assistant can’t able to understand Thomson’s messages. Criticism:
There are also criticism of Shannon- Weaver model.
• One of the simplest model and its general applied in various communication theories. • The model which attracts both academics of Human communication and Information theorist to leads their further research in communication. • It’s more effective in person-to-person communication than group or mass audience. • The model based on “Sender and Receiver”. Here sender plays the primary role and receiver plays the secondary role (receive the information or passive). • Communication is not a one way process.  If it’s behaved like that, it will lose its strength. For example: Audience or receiver who listening a radio, reading the books or watching television is a one way communication because absence of feedback. • Understanding Noise will helps to solve the various problems in communication.

Basically Shannon made this model not for the human communication. Rather he conceived the mediated communication, to be explicit the very phony conversation. Later human communication scholars began to use it to explain the unmediated human communication, as it is very simple and not far away.

Berlo’s SMCR Model
Dr. David K. Berlo (1929- 1996) was an American communication experts. He is called as “the father of modern mass communication”. Dr. Berlo explained his model as an expansion of Shannon- Weaver model in 1960 in his book “The Process of Communication”. He was a professor of department of communication, Michigan State University (MSU). Introduction:

The model of David Berlo is known as “Berlo’s SMCR model”. The meaning of SMCR is ... ... ...

Communication Model:
Elements of communication

S - Source
The source in other words also called the sender is the one from whom the thought originates. He is the one who transfers the information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into words. It is done with the help of ... ... ...

▪ Communication Skills
▪ Attitude
▪ Knowledge
▪ Social System
▪ Culture
M - Message
When an individual converts his thoughts into words, a message is created. The process is also called as Encoding. Any message further comprises of the following elements:
▪ Content
▪ Element
▪ Treatment
▪ Structure
▪ Code
C - Channel
Channel actually refers to the medium how the information flows from the sender to the receiver. Some are ... ... ... • Hearing.
• Tasting.
• Seeing.
• Smelling.
• Touching.
All the five senses are the channels which help human beings to communicate with each other. R - Receiver
When the message reaches the receiver, he tries to understand what the listener actually wants to convey and then responds accordingly. This is also called as decoding. The receiver should be on the same platform as the speaker for smooth flow of information and better understanding of the message. He should possess good communication skills to understand what the speaker is trying to convey. He should have the right attitude to understand the message in a positive way. His knowledge should also be at par with the listener and must know about the subject. He should also be from the same social and cultural background just like the speaker.

Example of SMCR model

Weak Point:
• No feedback
• More unilinear

Strong Point:
• Save money
• Save time
• Easy to pass
• Repeatation
• Replication

Though there is no feedback but Berlo’s SMCR model has a in development communication.

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