This paper will attempt to explain the physical, cognitive and psychosocial development that occurs in the pre-school child from positive encouragement of environmental influences, such as parents, siblings, kindergarten teachers and peers. It will incorporate the works of several theorists including Erikson and Piaget to help to explain how these environmental influences affect the pre-school child in the above three phases of development.
Period of lifespan
Lifespan period of the 4 year old is encompassed within early childhood, which ranges from three to six years old. This is stage three of Erik Erikson’s theory of the eight stages of lifespan development (Hoffnung et al., 2013). During this period there are major changes in the physical growth, the cognitive development and the psychosocial interactions with others. Even though a person’s growth and development is individual, the sequence of this development is not, as it is directly related to certain stages, these stages relate to certain developmental changes (Berman et al., 2012). Key physical aspects of the pre-school child are a slowdown of growth and a more proportionate body, progressively more adult-like. In early childhood the acquisition of language is a major advance in cognitive development. Around four years old they become more curious, asking many ‘WHY’ questions. Pre-schoolers learn to deal with conflict and aggression and develop the ability to relate to others empathically (Hoffnung, et al., 2013).
Environmental influences on physical development
Good nutrition can positively affect the physical development of the young child. This can lead good health, better physical growth and can also have a good impact on their intellectual development (Berman ... [et al.]. 2012). There can be vast differences in how same age children process information. These differences or variations can exist due to a child being under less stress or living in a nurturing environment. Confidence
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