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http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pcp_berk_lifespan_4_3667/59/15346/3928605.cw/index.html Reticular formation , a structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness throughout childhood and into adolescence. corpus callosum is a large bundle of fibers connection the two cerebral hemispheres. socialdramatic play the make believe with others that is under way around age 2 and increases rapidly during the next few years display awareness that make belive is a representational activity. education principles from piaget 1 discovery learning 2 sensitivity to childrens readiness to learn 3 acceptance of individual (233)
emergent literacy = childrens active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences adcademic programs teachers structure childrens learning teaching letter numbers colors through formallessons often using repetition and drill. fast-mapping = connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounters efforful control inhibitin gimpulses and shifting attention
| _____ involves adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.
| ___________________, a broader concept than scaffolding, accounts for children's diverse ways of learning through involvement with others.
| A child plays near other children with similar materials but does their behavior
| Parallel play
| A more advanced type of interaction in which children orient toward a common goal
| Cooperative play
| A process called ____ contributes to children's rapid vocabulary growth over the preschool years.
| fast mapping
| A strong hand preference reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain, or the _______ to carry out skilled motor action.
| dominant cerebral hemisphere
| According to Erikson, what leads to a negative resolution of initiative versus guilt?
| According to Erikson the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict superego that causes children to feel too much guilt because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.
| According to Piaget, young children are not capable of ____________, or mental actions that obey logical rules.
| Adults provide subtle, indirect feedback about grammar using two strategies. List and briefly describe these strategies.
| A. recasts- restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form B. expansions- elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity
| Aggression in which children want an object, privilege, or space
| Instrumental aggression
| Aggression meant to harm others through physical injury—pushing, hitting, kicking, punching others, or destroying another's property
| Physical aggression
| Aggression meant to hurt another person
| Hostile aggression
| Aggression that damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
| Relational aggression
| Aggression that harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
| Verbal aggression
| Around age 3, children begin to understand _________, or the ability to view a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol.
| dual representation
| Because of their higher activity level and greater willingness to take risks, (boys / girls) are 1.5 times more likely to be injured than (boys / girls).
| Between ages 4 and 8, as familiarity with physical events and principles increases, children's magical beliefs (increase / decline).
| Briefly describe the predictable errors preschoolers make in forming questions and demonstrating their understanding of the passive voice.
| By age 4, children (do / do not) adjust their speech to fit the age, sex,...
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