The Life-span perspective of human develop doesn’t just consist of the time from birth to death, it even involves those months of conception that a person spends inside their mother’s womb. There have been many theorist and studies that have provided substantial evidence proving that babies do learn inside their mother’s womb especially during the last trimester of pregnancy. This perspective goes in depth to talk about the changes that an individual goes through both cognitively, physically, and socially as we reach different ages in our life. These changes in each phase of life are broken up into 5 different aspects of change; multidirectional, multicontextual, multidisciplinary, multicultural, and plastic. Multidirectional basically means that development and learning don’t happen linearly. Learning and change happens sporadically and unplanned and can even lead to growth or decline in other areas of our life. The multicontextual aspect of change has a lot to do with the physical aspects around you and how they impact your changes through life. Multicontextual change is broken down in those theories presented by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Bronfenbrenner developed his theory into understandable terms calling it the ecological model. The Journal of Family Theory and review explained Bronfenbrenner’s theory as:
“the settings in which a developing individual
spends time and the relations with others in
the same settings, the personal characteristics of
the individual (and those with whom he or she
typically interacts), both development over time
and the historical time in which these individuals
live, and the mechanisms that drive development
(proximal processes)” (Rosa 2013).
Bronfenbrenners Ecological model is broken into 3 levels which consist of the microsystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. The microsystem is the immediate surrounding and people living around the individual, the exosystem is the school, churches, or institutions that the individual goes to, and the macrosystem is the social setting, core/cultural values, and political environment the individual is in. Bronfenbrenner later refined his ecological model to show respect to the time period in which an individual is in. Time period has a strong influence in the contexts that are placed upon an individual. Going back to the third part of change in development within the life span perspective is the multidisciplinary aspect. Many scientific theories, especially about human development, have been compounded over time and expanded based on other theorist that came before them and their theoretical ideals. Many of these theories take into consideration the different studies from other scientists or specialists from other fields or disciplines. This special consideration gives them a multidisciplinary view of human development. It helps them to not only understand the “how”, but also to understand the “why” humans change and develop the way they do. The forth aspect of the life span development theory is the multicultural aspect of change. The multicultural aspect has to do with all the cultural behaviors that have been passed down from generation to generation. Some of these cultural behaviors or traditions weigh very heavy on the future characteristics and development of the people within them. The multicultural aspect is simply broken down into 3 different attributes or elements. It talks about ethnic groups, race, and culture and the difference there of. Being of the same ethnic group seems to describe of being of the same heritage or region, while race may simply mean of the same or similar outward appearance. Take for instance a person who might be of African American decent. Then on the other hand take an individual who might be from Africa. Society as a whole has labeled both of these individuals as being “black”. And although that in itself may be true, they are from 2 completely different cultures. Their heritage and historical...
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