1. Describe the life and work of Dr.Maria Montessori.
One of the world greatest educators Maria Montessori, gave us the method of teaching children popularly known after her own name. She believed God had invested human beings with the urge and the power to fulfill themselves. In finding a way to liberate this power, she gave the world a new approach to education, as a joyful process of self discovery and self realization. ” First the education of the senses, then the education of the intellect” Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) Early years of her life
During the same year that Italy became a unified, free nation one of the worlds’ greatest educators, Maria Montessori was born. She was born on 31st August 1870 to an educated middle- class family in Chiravalle, Italy. She was the only child of her parents. Her father Alessandro Montessori was a successful government official and a conservative military man. Her mother, Renidle Stoppani, was a well educated, wealthy woman and supported Maria’s education. The frequent transfers of her father gave Maria a chance to have her education in big cities throughout Italy. Europe in those days was a very conservative in its attitude towards the treatment of women. Despite of opposition from her father, teachers and fellow male students, Maria Montessori pursued medical and scientific education and graduated with highest honors from the Medical School of the University of Rome. This changed when she was twelve . At this age , in Italy , children could leave school and go to work , but if they stayed on , they began to specialize in different subjects . Most girls , who did not expect to have any kind of career other than getting married and having children , except possibly teaching , took crash courses , learning Latin , Greek and Literature . The Italians are very family minded and most parents’ natural wish for a daughter was to see her happily married and the mother of a growing family. Maria was an attractive girl, and her parents could have expected her to ‘Marry Well’ perhaps into one of the families of the merchants or government officials who were socially important. But Maria had made an unprecedented decision which was to cause some disagreement within her family. She had decided that she wanted to be a doctor . No woman in Italy had taken this decision of the disapproval she was the first woman physician in Italy in 1896. As a career Montessori was never willing to step into the traditional roles open to women at that time, for which one of those careers was education. Although later astounding she became best known for her contributions in education. As a physician she specialized in pediatrics and the file of psychiatry. Montessori used to teach in medical school of the University of Rome and through its free clinics she was in contact with the children of the working class and poor. Later in 1900, she was appointed as the director of the new Orthophrenic School, a school serving as a municipal asylum for the special children, a place where the children were in awful condition and were kept in a prison like room and that there was no hope of recovery from them. She believed that each child is born with a unique potential to be revealed, rather than as a "blank slate" waiting to be written upon. Her main contributions to the work of those of us raising and educating children are; • Preparing the most natural and life supporting environment for the child • Observing the child living freely in this environment
• Continually adapting the environment in order that the child may fulfill his greatest potential -- physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually
In her work at the University of Rome psychiatric clinic Montessori developed an interest in the treatment of special needs children and, for several years, she...
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