Prophet Muhammad was born in Arabia. In those days, there was a custom among the Arabs to give their suckling infants in charge of Bedouin women, who would take them into the desert, and return them to the parents after a few years. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was given in charge of Halima Saadia. She loved Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) very much and the Prophet (pbuh) always had the highest regard for her. He used to call her ‘my mother’. At the age of six, Halima Saadia brought him back to this mother who took him to Yasrib to visit the grave of his father Abdullah and also to meet her relatives. During the return journey, Aminah died and was buried at Abwa. Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) was brought back to Madinah by Umm-e-Aimen. Abdul Muttalib, grandfather of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) then took over the charge of his grandson. He showered on him all his love and affection. Unfortunately, this also could not last for a long time as Abdul Muttalib died when the Holy Prophet was only eight years of age. Then Abu Talib, an uncle of the Holy Prophet(pbuh) took over the responsibility of bringing him up as his son. He faithfully and kindly discharged his duties and loved his nephew more than his own sons. In those days, reading and writing were not common; therefore, Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) did not get any formal education. When he was nine years old, Hazrat Muhammad began to show signs of an intelligent and inquisitive mind. He loved solitude and would not indulge in playful activities with children of his own age. The people loved him because of his sweet and peaceful nature. At the age of twelve, he accompanied Abu Talib on a trade journey to Syria and proceeded as far as Basra. There they met a Christian monk, Bahira, who recognized in Hazrat Muhammad the signs of the Prophet as related in Christian books. He advised Abu Talib not to take his nephew too far into Syria for the fear that the Jews may recognize him as the future prophet and harm him. After his return from Syria, Hazrat Muhammad used to spend long hours in solitary meditation and speak less to people. He, however, was very particular in helping the poor, the widows and the orphans. From his childhood he disliked polytheism and never worshipped idols, nor ate any food that was offered as a sacrifice to them. During his youth, he worked as a shepherd who gave him an opportunity for thought and meditation Harb-ul-Fijar : Impact of war
Hazrat Muhammad was about fifteen years old when a sacrilegious war or Harb-ul-Fijar broke out between the Quraish and Hawazin tribes. The war was called sacrilegious because it was fought during the sacred months when fighting was forbidden. This was a major event in the life of Hazrat Muhammad and one that must have had a great impact on his character. His impressions of the war were in all probability probably concerned with the tragic results of the war and the bloodshed and the unnecessary human suffering. Being the first armed conflict that he witnessed, the pernicious consequences of war influenced his mild and peaceful loving temperament and he must have developed a very strong and lasting dislike for war. At the same time, his indirect participation in the war also gave him a military experience that was so vital for any person destined to be the leader of people through a major socio-religious revolution. Half-al-Fazul
Objectives of pact:
As a result of Fijar thousands of lives were lost. When the leaders of Makkah saw the effects of the war, they formed a league called the Half-al-Fazul with the objectives of maintaining peace in the region and also for suppressing violence and injustice and for upholding the rights of the weak, the poor and the destitute. Naming of pact:
This alliance was called al-Fazul because three of the main participants were called al-fazl. It is also suggested by historians that this alliance was called Fazul because it was made for a noble cause: Fazul means maintaining honor. To sign pact, the Hashimites under the leadership of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib along with some other tribes assembled in the house of a noble Quraish, Abdullah bin Judan.
Early Life of the Prophet
Muhammad (whose name means "highly praised") was born in Mecca in 570 AD. His father died shortly before his birth, and he lost his mother at the age of six. Primarily his uncle, for whom he worked as a shepherd, then raised the young orphan. At age 9 (some sources say 12), he joined his uncle on a caravan to Syria. Early Employment:
As a young man, Muhammad worked as a camel driver between Syria and Arabia. Soon he established a career, managing caravans on behalf of merchants. Through his travel first with his uncle and later in his career, Muhammad came into contact with people of many nationalities and faiths, including Jews, Christians and pagans. Marriage:
At age 25, Muhammad was employed by Khadija, a wealthy Meccan widow 15 years his senior. The two were married, and by all accounts enjoyed a loving and happy marriage. Early records report "God comforted him through her, for she made his burden light." Although polygamy was common practice at the time, Muhammad took no other wife than Khadija until her death 24 years later.
Finality of Prophet hood
All Muslims of the world, no matter what their sects are, hold in common that Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) was the last Prophet (Seal of the Prophets), and in fact, Muslims believe in divine prophecy having ended with him, just as they believe in the Oneness of Allah (Tauheed). Allah (SWT) says: "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things." (Noble Qur'an, 33:40) Divine Revelation
In his late 30s, Prophet Muhammad( SAW) took to regularly visiting a cave in Mount Hira, on the outskirts of Mecca, to seek solitude and contemplation. In 610, at the age of 40, Muhammad returned from one such visit telling his wife he had either gone mad or become a prophet, for he had been visited by an angel. The initially startled Khadija became his first convert. Muhammad reported that while in a trance-like state, the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and said "Proclaim!" But like Moses, Prophet Muhammed( SAW) was a reluctant prophet. He replied, "I am not a proclaimer." The angel persisted, and the Prophet repeatedly resisted, until the angel finally overwhelmed Muhammad and commanded him: Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created!
Created man from a clot of blood.
Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous,
Who teaches by the pen;
Teaches man what he knew not. (Qur'an 96:1-3)
After receiving Khadija's support, and additional angelic visits, Muhammad became confident he had indeed been chosen as the messenger of God and began to proclaim as he had been commanded. Prophet Mohamed’s message
Prophet Muhammad's message to his countrymen was to convert from pagan polytheism, immorality and materialism, repent from evil and worship Allah, the only true God. He was always careful to clarify his role in God's work - he was only a prophet. He was not an angel, he did not know the mind of God, he did not work miracles. He simply preached what he had received. Persecution of Muslim community:
In the first three years of his ministry,Prophet Muhammad(SAW) gained only 40 followers. And as his teachings threatened the Meccan way of life, both moral and economic, he and his followers experienced heavy persecution. It first took the form of mockery, but soon turned into open violence. Members of the small movement were stoned, covered in dirt as they prayed, beat with sticks, thrown into prison and refused service by merchants. Migration to Madinah( Hijrah)
Persecution continued to increase until Muhammad received some welcome news: he had gained followers in the city of Yathrib, 280 miles north of Mecca. The city was in need of a strong leader, and a delegation from Yathrib proposed that Muhammad take the job. In return, they pledged to worship Allah only, obey Muhammad and defend him and his followers to the death. Allah revealed to Muhammed his approval of this arrangement, and Muhammad made plans to escape to Yathrib. The leaders in Mecca heard of the planned escape, and attempted to prevent it. But Muhammad and his close friend Abu Bakr managed to make a narrow escape north out of the city, evading a Meccan search party and arriving safely in Yathrib. Muslims celebrate this event as the Hijira. The year, in which it occurred, 622, is the date at which the Muslim calendar begins. Yathrib was renamed Medinat al-Nabi, "the City of the Prophet," and is now known simply as Medina, "the City." Leadership in Medina
In Medina, Muhammad proved himself an able politician and statesman as well as a prophet. Exercising superb statecraft, he welded the five heterogeneous and conflicting tribes of the city, three of which were Jewish, into an orderly confederation.... His reputation spread and people began to flock from every part of Arabia to see the man who had wrought this 'miracle.' Battles with Meccans
After establishing himself in Medina and accomplishing the job he had been invited to do, the people of Medina began several years of battle with Prophet Muhammad's former home city. In 624, the Muslims won their first battle against the Meccans. As the latter had a much larger army, the former took the victory as a sign that God was on their side. However, a subsequent battle, at UHud, was not victorious, and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself was wounded. But in 627, the Meccans attacked Medina, and Medina attained victory. This battle is known as the battle of khandaq.The Prophet was not to lose again. In 630, Muhammad and his forces marched to Mecca and defeated it. The Prophet rededicated the Ka'ba temple to Allah, witnessed the conversion to Islam of nearly the entire Meccan population, and then returned to Medina. Muhammad died in 632, having conquered nearly all of Arabia for Islam.
Rights of Prophet Mohamed (pbuh)
Rights of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) are the most important, after the rights of Allah (SWT). There is no human who has more rights than Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw). Allah (SWT) says: "Surely We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness and as a bearer of good news and as a warner, That you may believe in Allah and His Messenger and may aid him and revere him; and (that) you may declare His glory, morning and evening." (Noble Qur'an, 48:8-9) "And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but to all the men as a bearer of good news and as a warner, but most men do not know." (Noble Qur'an, 34:28) Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) has many rights. Below is a brief enumeration of rights as gleaned from Quran and Sunnah. Respect and appreciation for him should be practiced in the best manner. Respecting Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) includes respect of and adherence to his Sunnah (Ahlul Bayt). When one reads how the sincere companions (Sahabah) used to love and respect Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), one knows the importance of this matter. When Quraish sent Orwa ibn Masud to negotiate with Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) in Hudaybiyah area, he was greatly impressed by how the companions treated Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw). He said, "I have visited the kings of Persia, Rome and Abyssinia, but I have not seen any leader more revered and respected by his people than Muhammad. If he ordered them to do anything, they do it without delay. If he performs Wudu (washing up for prayer) they all seek the remainder of the water he used. They never look at him in the eye, out of respect."
All Muslims of the world, no matter what their sects are, hold in common that Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) was the last Prophet (Seal of the Prophets), and in fact, Muslims believe in divine prophecy having ended with him, just as they believe in the Oneness of Allah (Tauheed). Allah (SWT) says: "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things." (Noble Qur'an, 33:40) Rights of Prophet Mohamed (pbuh)
Rights of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) are the most important, after the rights of Allah (SWT). There is no human who has more rights than Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw). Allah (SWT) says: "Surely We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness and as a bearer of good news and as a warner, That you may believe in Allah and His Messenger and may aid him and revere him; and (that) you may declare His glory, morning and evening." (Noble Qur'an, 48:8-9) "And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but to all the men as a bearer of good news and as a warner, but most men do not know." (Noble Qur'an, 34:28) Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) has many rights. Below is a brief enumeration of rights as gleaned from Quran and Sunnah. Respect and appreciation for him should be practiced in the best manner. Respecting Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) includes respect of and adherence to his Sunnah (Ahlul Bayt). When one reads how the sincere companions (Sahabah) used to love and respect Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), one knows the importance of this matter. When Quraish sent Orwa ibn Masud to negotiate with Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) in Hudaybiyah area, he was greatly impressed by how the companions treated Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw). He said, "I have visited the kings of Persia, Rome and Abyssinia, but I have not seen any leader more revered and respected by his people than Muhammad. If he ordered them to do anything, they do it without delay. If he performs Wudu (washing up for prayer) they all seek the remainder of the water he used. They never look at him in the eye, out of respect." Obedience:
The rights of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) include believing him in matters of religion and the past, present and future happenings he told us about. Adherence and submission to his orders are some of his rights. When a Muslim believes in Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) and wants to follow his religion, he must do so believing that Holy Prophet Muhammad's (saw) way is the best way. Believing in Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) includes the affirmation that his religion is the best religion. Allah (SWT) has confirmed all these rights in the following verses of Noble Qur'an, what translated means: "Say (O Muhammad to mankind): If you love Allah then you follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Say: "Obey Allah and His Messenger": But if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith." (Noble Qur'an, 3:31-32) "But no, by your Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission." (Noble Qur'an, 4:65) "Whoever obeys the Messenger, he indeed obeys Allah, and whoever turns back, so We have not sent you as a keeper over them." (Noble Qur'an, 4:80) "And let those beware who go against his order lest a trial afflict them or there befall them a painful chastisement." (Noble Qur'an, 24:63) "It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: If any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path." (Noble Qur'an, 33:36) How obedience is practiced?
We Muslims believe in what Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) has said and practiced. "O People, I leave among you two precious and weighty trusts, one being the Book of Allah and the other my Progeny (Ahlul Bayt). These two legacies will never be separated from each other, and if you lay firm hold of them you will never go astray." (Hadith-E-Saqlain) Because whatever Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said is from Allah (SWT): "Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed." (Noble Qur'an, 53:3-4) We Muslims obey Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) in what has been commanded and forsake what he has forbidden or discouraged. "And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it)." (Noble Qur'an, 59:7) Respond to all calls of Prophet Mohamed (SAW)
On the authority of Abu Sa'id bin al-Mu'alla it is reported in Sahih Bukhari that while he was praying in mosque, Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) called him. He did not, however, instantly respond. When he finished the prayer, he approached him, pleading that he was praying. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) told him: Do you not know that Allah (SWT) has directed: "O you who believe! Answer Allah and (His) Messenger when he calls you." (Noble Qur'an, 8:24) Hanzalah was a young man who had not yet completed twenty-four years of his age. The night preceding the day on which the battle of Uhud took place was his wedding night. When he heard the call to Jihad he was perplexed. He found no alternative but to seek permission from Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) to spend that night in Madinah and reach the battlefield on the following day (Noble Qur'an 24:62). Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) granted him permission for one night to consummate the nuptial rites. In the morning he reached the battlefield even before taking ceremonial bath lest he might be late in answering Holy Prophet Muhammad's (saw) call. In the same state Hanzalah joined the army, fought bravely and attained martyrdom. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: "I have seen that the angels were washing Hanzalah." That is why he is called 'Ghasilul Malaikah' (i.e. one who was washed by the angels). The above reports about two Companions that Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) directed them to discontinue the prayer for answering his call, and about Hanzalah who joined his call for Jihad without any delay, prove that Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) is to be obeyed unconditionally. It is clear from the above-quoted Qur'anic verse and Hadith reports that Holy Prophet Muhammad's (saw) call should be answered instantly. We Muslims worship Allah (SWT) according to the Shar'iah of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), not by whims and Bid'ah (innovations). We Muslims judge ourselves by the Shar'iah of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), and not by any other law. Love Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) more than our parents, Children, all of mankind, indeed our very selves. Therefore, love for Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) should be more than one's love for himself, his children, family, worldly possessions and everything. Obedience to Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) is obligatory. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) has stressed the importance of obeying and following his Sunnah (Ahlul Bayt) with his saying: "None of you will reach belief till I become dearer to him than his children, parents and all humans." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] Qualities of Prophet Mohamed (pbuh)
He was Allah's Last Messenger who possessed great qualities and the best of conduct ever. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) is the finest example of a perfect man in every sense of the term. He was a paragon of virtue and is the best exemplar for the human race. Allah (SWT) says: "Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much." (Noble Qur'an, 33:21) "And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality." (Noble Qur'an, 68:4) The Almighty Allah (SWT) distinguished him from all and sundry by instilling in his sublime personality such fine qualities as modesty, truthfulness, kindness, patience, loyalty, honesty, courage, bravery, generosity, magnanimity, wisdom and the like. Lessons to be learnt from Prophet’s personality
By studying his lofty character and the amazingly simple life he (saw) led with his household, companions, wives and others, we are able to learn valuable lessons from his conduct and accordingly mould our own life-style. Our society can never be an Islamic one unless we sincerely tread the footsteps of Almighty Allah's final Messenger to mankind, heed his sayings, observe his glorious actions and attitudes, and most important of all follow them, as the faithful among his sincere companions (Sahabah) followed and believed as shown in the following story: One day Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) while entering the city of Madinah, saw a Jewish Man, just few steps ahead of him, taking his very good breed of Horse towards market to sell. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) liked the Horse. So he negotiated with the Jewish Man and bought it at an agreed price. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) did not have money on him at the time so he asked the Jewish Man to follow him up to his house and he would pay him his due. The Jewish Man agreed. As they were going, another man approached and asked the Jewish Man if he was selling his Horse and for how much. He said that he had already sold the Horse to Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) for such and such amount. This man offered him better price and he agreed to sell the Horse to him. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said to the Jewish Man that since he had already sold the Horse to him, it was wrong to break the agreement just like that. The Jewish Man denied making any agreement. Whilst all this was going on, the passers by stopped and wondered as to what was going on. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) explained exactly what happened. Companions asked: O Messenger of Allah (SWT), do you have any witnesses to support your claim? Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) replied: No. We have no witnesses as there was no one present when the agreement was made. Companions said: Sorry, we don't think we can help you. How can we be sure who is telling the truth and who is lying? In the meanwhile, a very close and sincere companion of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), Huzaima ibn Sabit (ra) happened to pass by and saw Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) surrounded by the people. On inquiring about it, came to know what happened. Huzaima ibn Sabit (ra) said: Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) is telling the truth and the Jewish Man is lying. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) asked: But you were not present when the agreement was made. So how can you judge without being there? Huzaima ibn Sabit (ra) replied: O Messenger of Almighty Allah (SWT), you said that there is God and we believed you, even though we haven't seen Him. You told us that Noble Qur'an was the word of Almighty Allah (SWT) and we believed you. You told us about Angels, Heaven and Hell and we believed you, even though we haven't seen all these things. Then how is it possible that you would lie about such petty thing? The moral of the story is that there were some companions who walked, sat and ate with Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), but did not grasp his inner personality and at the same time there were also some other companions